29 March 1942

29 March 1942

29 March 1942

March 1942



British publish their proposals for changes to the Indian Constitution in which India is to be granted full Dominion status after the war

War at Sea

German navy fails to intercept a Murmansk convoy

On March 29, 1942, the War Department asks the Children's Orthopedic Hospital Guilds of Seattle for help in the secret movement of civilian evacuees from Hawaii. The Government needs to provide food and lodging for several thousand people and relies upon the Hospital's extensive and well-organized system of neighborhood guilds.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the military declared martial law in Hawaii. The Army acted to evacuate the families of servicemen and then expanded its order to include other women and children who wanted to leave as well as tourists stranded by war. During the next three months, 10,000 people left Hawaii for the mainland.

On March 29, 1942, officials from the War Department contacted Frances Penrose Owen, President of the Children's Orthopedic Hospital Board of Trustees. The War Department needed to find accommodations for 3,000 to 6,000 evacuees who were soon to arrive in Seattle.

Seattle was already experiencing a housing shortage due to the influx of war workers and military personnel. Children's Orthopedic Hospital had a network of neighborhood guilds that raised money, manufactured hospital supplies, and provided volunteers in the hospital. Owen was asked to quickly -- and quietly -- trigger the guilds into action to find food and housing. She called a special meeting of the guild council and cautioned the guild presidents to keep the convoy a secret. They would not know of the ships' arrival until just hours before. The guild presidents mobilized the hospitality committees and the guilds shifted their efforts from crippled children to war refugees.

Volunteers prepared space at the Sunset Club and at the Red Cross Recreation Center as well as at various churches. The arrival of the convoy was not reported in Seattle newspapers military censors prohibited publication of weather reports and ship movements. But an interview of one eyewitness to the December 7 attack, Mary Semans Naiden, on April 7 revealed that the evacuees had begun to arrive.

29 March 1942 - History

The righting and refloating of the capsized battleship Oklahoma was the largest of the Pearl Harbor salvage jobs, and the most difficult. Since returning this elderly and very badly damaged warship to active service was not seriously contemplated, the major part of the project only began in mid-1942, after more immediately important salvage jobs were completed. Its purpose was mainly to clear an important mooring berth for further use, and only secondarily to recover some of Oklahoma 's weapons and equipment.

The first task was turning Oklahoma upright. During the latter part of 1942 and early 1943, an extensive system of righting frames (or "bents") and cable anchors was installed on the ship's hull, twenty-one large winches were firmly mounted on nearby Ford Island, and cables were rigged between ship and shore. Fuel oil, ammunition and some machinery were removed to lighten the ship. Divers worked in and around her to make the hull as airtight as possible. Coral fill was placed alongside her bow to ensure that the ship would roll, and not slide, when pulling began. The actual righting operation began on 8 March and continued until mid-June, with rerigging of cables taking place as necessary as the ship turned over.

To ensure that the ship remained upright, the cables were left in place during the refloating phase of the operation. Oklahoma 's port side had been largely torn open by Japanese torpedos, and a series of patches had to be installed. This involved much work by divers and other working personnel, as did efforts to cut away wreckage, close internal and external fittings, remove stores and the bodies of those killed on 7 December 1941. The ship came afloat in early November 1943, and was drydocked in late December, after nearly two more months of work.

Once in Navy Yard hands, Oklahoma most severe structural damage was repaired sufficiently to make her watertight. Guns, some machinery, and the remaining ammuniton and stores were taken off. After several months in Drydock Number Two, the ship was again refloated and moored elsewhere in Pearl Harbor. She was sold to a scrapping firm in 1946, but sank in a storm while under tow from Hawaii to the west coast in May 1947.

This page features views related to the salvage of USS Oklahoma following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

If you want higher resolution reproductions than the Online Library's digital images, see: "How to Obtain Photographic Reproductions."

Click on the small photograph to prompt a larger view of the same image.

Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Territory of Hawaii

View looking northward, with the Navy Yard industrial area in the foreground and the Marine Barracks in the lower right, 28 July 1942. Ford Island is at left, with USS Oklahoma and USS Arizona under salvage nearby. USS San Diego is in the upper center.
USS West Virginia is in Drydock Number One, in the lower left, and USS California is alongside the wharf at the extreme right. Cruisers alongside the pier in right center are Northampton (left) and Pensacola . Submarines alongside 1010 Dock, just beyond Drydock # 1, are Trout , Pollack , Dolphin and Cachalot .
Note camouflage on many of the Navy Yard's buildings.

Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation. Collection of The Honorable James V. Forrestal.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 146KB 740 x 600 pixels

Under Secretary of the Navy James V. Forrestal (left)

With Rear Admiral William R. Furlong (right), Commandant of the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, and another officer, on board the capsized hull of USS Oklahoma (BB-37), at Pearl Harbor on 6 September 1942. The ship was then in the early stages of salvage.
Note the two battleships in the background, moored alongside Ford Island. They are Pennsylvania (BB-38), in center, and either Maryland (BB-46) or Colorado (BB-45).

Courtesy of the Naval Historical Foundation. Collection of The Honorable James V. Forrestal.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 94KB 740 x 625 pixels

Salvage of USS Oklahoma (BB-37), 1942-44

Ductwork installed to ventilate the capsized battleship's starboard side blister during salvage work.
Photographed 11 December 1942, as the ship was being prepared for righting. Note the lugs welded to the blister side, to which the righting cables will be attached.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 141KB 740 x 615 pixels

Photographer's Mate 3rd Class T.E. Collins

After photographing the oil and mud smeared interior of the capsized USS Oklahoma (BB-37) while she was under salvage at Pearl Harbor, 18 January 1943. He entered the ship through Number Four Air Lock, where pressure was raised to ten (lb.?) per square inch. An oxygen mast had to be worn at all times.
Note his mask, tank suit, boots, gloves, and camera.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 110KB 595 x 765 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

The capsized battleship is rotated upright, while under salvage at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on 8 March 1943.
This view looks forward, with the ship in the 130 degree position. Her starboard deck edge is just rising from the water.

U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.

Online Image: 124KB 740 x 605 pixels

Commencement of righting operations on the capsized battleship, at Pearl Harbor, 8 March 1943.
Photographed from Ford Island, where several large winches and tackle anchors were emplaced to pull Oklahoma upright.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, from the collections of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Online Image: 132KB 740 x 600 pixels

Ship righted to about 30 degrees, on 29 March 1943, while she was under salvage at Pearl Harbor. She had capsized and sunk after receiving massive torpedo damage during the 7 December 1941 Japanese air raid.
Ford Island is at right and the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard is in the left distance.

Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

Online Image: 118KB 740 x 605 pixels

Reproductions of this image may also be available through the National Archives photographic reproduction system.

Ship righted to about 30 degrees, on 29 March 1943, while she was under salvage at Pearl Harbor. She had capsized and sunk during the 7 December 1941 Japanese air raid.
Naval Air Station Ford Island is in the background.

The Bonus Army Veterans Occupy D.C.

The Bonus March actually began in May 1932 as some 15,000 veterans assembled in makeshift camps scattered around Washington, D.C. where they planned to demand and wait for the immediate payment of their bonuses.

The first and largest of the veterans’ camps, dubbed “Hooverville,” in as a backhanded tribute to President Herbert Hoover, was located on Anacostia Flats, a swampy bog directly across the Anacostia River from the Capitol Building and the White House. Hooverville housed about 10,000 veterans and their families in ramshackle shelters built from old lumber, packing boxes, and scrapped tin from a nearby junk pile. Including the veterans, their families, and other supporters, the crowd of protesters eventually grew to nearly 45,000 people.

Veterans, along with the assistance of the D.C. Police, maintained order in the camps, built military-style sanitation facilities, and held orderly daily protest parades.

Here's How Biden's Proposed Tax Increases Will Affect You

"The largest federal tax increase since 1942," is how The New York Times, in a front-page news article, is describing President Joe Biden's plan for the American economy.

The Times doesn't specify precisely how it is measuring the size of the tax increase—in terms of nominal or real dollars raised or as a percentage of gross domestic product. Whatever the yardstick, it is newsworthy.

One thing that made me chuckle is that it's only now—months after the inauguration—that the Times is waking up to the scale of Biden's tax increase plans and sharing the news with its readership at the top of its Sunday front page. This is so even though Biden was fairly open about the details of the plan during the campaign.

Some voices had even been warning about it in advance of the election.

"Read Joe Biden's Lips: New Taxes" was the headline on a July 2020 Wall Street Journal editorial.

"He has pledged a $4 trillion tax hike on almost all American families, which would totally collapse our rapidly improving economy," President Trump said in August 2020 at the Republican National Convention.

"Biden's plan to double the capital gains tax" was the headline over one blog post I wrote on the topic back in October 2020.

Why has reaction, at least so far, been relatively muted?

The pandemic, the Black Lives Matter protests, and the January 6 political violence all distracted from the tax issue.

The radical nature of the Democratic primary field—Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D–Mass.) and Sen. Bernie Sanders (I–Vt.) both favored a wealth tax—made Biden's tax increases, while vast, seem more moderate by comparison.

And while Biden's tax plans add up to a hefty hit overall, some of the pieces themselves seem incremental.

He'd increase the top corporate rate to 28 percent. That's more than the current 21 percent, but still less than the 35 percent that applied between 1993 and 2017.

He'd increase the top individual income tax rate to 39.6 percent. That's up from the current 37 percent, but it's a rate that applied from 1993 to 2000 and again from 2013 to 2017, so it's not exactly unknown ground.

The two most extreme aspects of the Biden tax plan each have political pitches behind them that are at least plausible. The 12.4 percent payroll tax for Social Security's Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance is capped for 2021 on a wage base of $142,800. Biden would apply the tax to income above $400,000. That, not the increase to 39.6 percent from 37 percent, would be the real hit to high-income earners in the Biden plan. The combined effect—39.6 percent plus 12.4 percent—would be that at the margin, the federal government would take 52 percent, or more than half, of dollars earned over $400,000. There's an additional Medicare tax of 3.8 percent, which would take the top federal marginal tax rate up to 55.8 percent.

To my mind, it's just on its face unjust for the federal government to take more than half of what anyone earns.

The political explanation of this by the Democrats, though, is the combination of "bring back the top individual rates that we had under Clinton and Obama, when you all did pretty well" and "it's unfair for Warren Buffett to pay a lower tax rate than his secretary," which is partially a function of the current cap on the base for the Social Security payroll tax.

The other big piece of the Biden tax increase is a plan to bring the capital gains tax rate up to the earned income tax rate. Biden campaigned on that: "I think it's about time we start rewarding work in this country, not wealth," he said. "I think it's time working families get a break and the super wealthy and big corporations pay their fair share. They're still going to be doing just fine." Toward the end of the Reagan years, 1988 to 1990, the top capital gains rate, 28 percent, and the top income tax rate, 28 percent, were one and the same, so this idea, too, isn't entirely unprecedented.

Opponents of a capital gains rate increase point out that it's partly a tax on inflation, as the government finds a way to tax homeowners or stock owners on the government's own failure to maintain a currency that is a stable store of value. They also argue that it's double taxation, as money that produces capital gains has often already been taxed once as income at either the corporate or individual level. Such taxes punish risk-taking and investment, and discourage capital formation.

The arguments about taxation are familiar at this point from being carted out each time a new presidential administration arrives and seeks to reset the rates.

Democrats argue that spending funded by the taxes will contribute to more vigorous and widely distributed growth, reducing inequality.

Republicans argue that the money is spent more wisely by individuals or firms than by politicians, that there is an injustice in a majority ganging up to take away money from hardworking people who have created value, and that the increased taxes will reduce incentives and slow growth.

The debate may feel stale, but as a political matter, it is unresolved. The recent pattern has been that Democrats overreach and raise taxes to the point where Republicans get annoyed and lower taxes. Then the cycle repeats again.

Lord Louis Mountbatten (1900 - 1979)

Lord Louis Mountbatten © Mountbatten was a British naval officer who oversaw the defeat of the Japanese offensive towards India during World War Two. He was appointed the last viceroy of British India and first governor general of independent India.

Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten was born in Windsor on 25 June 1900. A German aristocrat, as the son of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Victoria of Hesse, he also shared close links with the British royal family (his great grandmother was Queen Victoria and he himself was uncle to Prince Philip).

Mountbatten's father was first sea lord at the outbreak of World War One, but anti-German feeling forced his resignation. In 1917, the family changed their name from Battenberg to the less-Germanic sounding Mountbatten.

Mountbatten, known as 'Dickie' to family and close friends, was educated mainly at home until 1914 when he went to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. He joined the Royal Navy in 1916 and saw action in World War One, then briefly attended Cambridge University for a year after the war.

Mountbatten spent the inter-war period pursuing his naval career, where he specialised in communications. In 1934, he received his first command on the destroyer, HMS 'Daring'. In June 1939, shortly before the outbreak of war, Mountbatten gained command of a flotilla of destroyers which saw considerable action in the Mediterranean. In May 1941, his ship HMS 'Kelly' was sunk by German dive bombers off the coast of Crete with the loss of more than half the crew. 'Kelly' and her captain were later immortalised in Noel Coward's film 'In Which We Serve'.

In April 1942, Mountbatten was appointed chief of combined operations, with responsibility for the preparation of the eventual invasion of occupied Europe. In the meantime, he organised raids against Europe's coastline, overseeing the disastrous Dieppe raid of August 1942. In October 1943, he became the supreme allied commander, South East Asia Command (SEAC), a position he held until 1946. Working with General William Slim, Mountbatten achieved the defeat of the Japanese offensive towards India and the reconquest of Burma. In September 1945, he received the Japanese surrender at Singapore.

In March 1947, Mountbatten became viceroy of India with a mandate to oversee the British withdrawal. He established good relations with leading politicians, particularly with Jawaharlal Nehru, but was unable to persuade the Muslim leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah of the benefits of a united, independent India.

Mountbatten soon gave up hope of a united country and on 14-15 August 1947, British India was partitioned into the new states of India and Pakistan. This resulted in widespread inter-communal violence, particularly in the Punjab, which now sat in East India, and West Pakistan. There were huge population movements as 3.5 million Hindus and Sikhs fled from the areas that had become Pakistan and around five million Muslims migrated to Pakistan.

Mountbatten remained as interim governor-general of India until June 1948. For his services during the war and in India he was created viscount in 1946 and Earl Mountbatten of Burma the following year.

In 1953, Mountbatten returned to the Royal Navy, becoming commander of a new NATO Mediterranean command. Then in 1954 he was appointed first sea lord, a position which had been held by his father more than 40 years before. Finally, in 1959, he became chief of the defence staff, then in 1965 he retired from the navy.

On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten was murdered when IRA terrorists blew up his boat off the coast of County Sligo, Ireland, near his family holiday home at Classiebawn Castle. Two of Mountbatten's relations and a 15-year old local boy were also killed.

Mountbatten's funeral took place in Westminster Abbey and he was buried at Romsey Abbey, near Broadlands. He had no sons, which meant that Mountbatten's eldest daughter, Patricia, inherited his title.

Congressional Medal of Honor recipients from Other Conflicts, and Peacetimes. This list incorporates additional details regarding the recipient's entry into service, specialties, mission details, and gravesite images.

Our Military's first medal was the Badge for Military Merit, established by General George Washington during the American Revolution and presented only three times. During the American Civil War, the Medal of Honor was established and presented nearly 3,000 times before World War I. Other than the now obsolete Certificate of Merit and Marine Corps Brevet Medal, it was the only award available in the U.S. Military, and in the Navy and Marine Corps, it could only be presented to enlisted sailors and Marines.

At the time of the Civil War, the Medal of Honor was the only award available for recognizing a significant act of heroism while serving the United States military. In some cases, it was awarded frivolously. The Civil War ended in 1865. In 1917, a review was made of Medal of Honor awards with the revocation of 911 deemed to have been awarded without proper merit.

At the same time, to recognize deeds of lesser heroism than what was required for the Medal of Honor, as well as to recognize distinguished service and/or achievement that was laudable but not necessarily heroic, a series of "lesser awards" in descending orders of precedence was established in the Military Pyramid of Honor. For more information see Medals and Awards.

Looking for more? Many visitors find our Medal of Honor Interesting Facts very informative!

False claim: 1942 C.S. Lewis quote on Satan and Jesus

Images and posts shared on social media misattribute an imagined exchange between Satan and Jesus to the late C.S. Lewis, the British author known for The Chronicles of Narnia.

The various posts on social media show a quote first from ‘Satan’, who describes the fear and anxiety that he will provoke, then from ‘Jesus’, who says he will bring together people and families. The full text is transcribed below:

“Satan: I will cause anxiety, fear and panic. I will shut down business, schools, places of worship, and sports events. I will cause economic turmoil.

Jesus: I will bring together neighbors, restore the family unit, I will bring dinner back to the kitchen table. I will help people slow down their lives and appreciate what really matters. I will teach my children to rely on me and not the world. I will teach my children to trust me and not their money and material resources.”

One image makes the further claim that the quote was written by Lewis in 1942 in response to World War II ( here ).

The quote, however, is misattributed to C.S. Lewis and was in fact written by a social media user this year.

In 1942, Lewis published three non-fiction books: The Case for Christianity ( here ) , A Preface to Paradise Lost ( here ), and Broadcast Talks ( here ). In none of these three books does this quote appear.

The same year, Lewis also published a work of fiction, The Screwtape Letters. This epistolary novel was a satirical account of an exchange between two demons, used to examine theological discussions related to temptation, ( here ). Nowhere in this book does a quote similar to the one attributed to Lewis on social media appear.

In the book Mere Christianity, published in 1952, but adapted from a series of talks Lewis gave during World War II, Lewis discussed the influences “Satan” and “God” have had on humankind:

“What Satan put into the heads of our remote ancestors was the idea that they could "be like gods […] And out of that hopeless attempt has come nearly all that we call human history—money, poverty, ambition, war, prostitution, classes, empires, slavery—the long terrible story of man trying to find something other than God which will make him happy. The reason why it can never succeed is this. God made us: invented us as a man invents an engine.” ( here ) This exchange is evidently distinct to the quote examined in this check.

The viral quote on social media can instead be traced back to a Facebook post made on March 12, 2020 by a US woman named Heidi May ( ), as first reported by Snopes on March 30, 2020 ( here ).

May told Reuters she wrote the exchange on a day she was “feeling overwhelmed”, adding, “Jesus spoke these words to my heart.”

March on Washington

Traveling to Washington
On buses, trains, cars, trucks, airplanes, and on foot, people traveled from every state. For many, the journey to Washington was as memorable as the day’s events. The organizers had hoped for a diverse crowd and saw their hopes fulfilled. An estimated 250,000 people—united across race, class, and ideological lines, and representing organizations, unions, churches or simply themselves—poured into Washington and onto the grounds of the Lincoln Memorial.

Getting on the Bus in Madison, Wisconsin

Courtesy of the UW-Madison Archives, #S00650

On the Podium
On the steps of the memorial, A. Philip Randolph opened the program and served as the day’s moderator. The program began with an invocation and included music, a tribute to the “Negro Women Fighters for Freedom,” and speeches from six civil rights groups and four supporting organizations.

Roy Wilkins's Cap

National Museum of American History, gift of Roy and Aminda Wilkins

As the program began, march leaders held an emergency meeting in a small security room behind Lincoln’s statue. The Kennedy administration and moderate members of the coalition had seen an advance copy of John Lewis’s remarks, and they were furious. They thought Lewis was too critical of the civil rights bill and SNCC’s demands were too confrontational. Lewis complained about censorship and threatened to pull out of the program. But for the sake of the coalition, Lewis made last minute changes that he believed did not compromise his message.

Acknowledged as the most gifted speaker within the movement, Martin Luther King Jr. had the honor of giving the concluding address. In a day of inspiring speeches, his call for justice stands out as one of the most powerful in American history. His speech echoed the words of the Bible, the Constitution, Lincoln, and the national anthem. He wove together long unfulfilled promises, the injustices of a segregated society, and a vision of a renewed nation. In repeating “I have a dream” again and again, he summed up the aspirations of the march and the demands of the civil rights movement.

To Bear Witness
By the end of the day, an estimated 250,000 people participated in the march. They carried signs, sang along with civil rights anthems, waded in the Reflecting Pool, and listened to the speeches. Mostly, they came to bear witness, for themselves and their communities, that they would not stand by idly when the rights of so many Americans were being denied. Their presence on the National Mall was as powerful a statement as any delivered on the podium.

29 March 1942 - History

On June 16, 1942, Public Law 77-607, the "Pay Readjustment Act of 1942", was signed into law by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The law instituted the method of computing longevity pay for enlisted personnel the same as that for commissioned officers, that is, 5 percent of base pay for each three years of service, up to a maximum of 30 years.

Covering the majority of World War II, the United States military officer and enlisted base pay scales, effective June 1, 1942 through June 30, 1946, for active components of the Navy, Marines Corps, Army, and Coast Guard.

The pay rates are monthly, US dollar.

1942-1946 Enlisted Base Military Pay Chart

Enlisted pay chart for 12 to over 21 years of service.
GradeYears of Service
Over 12 Over 15 Over 18 Over 21
1st 165.60 172.50 179.40 186.30
2nd 136.80 142.50 148.20 153.90
3rd 115.20 120.00 124.80 129.60
4th 93.60 97.50 101.40 105.30
5th 79.20 82.50 85.80 89.10
6th 64.80 67.50 72.20 72.90
7th 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50
Enlisted pay chart for 24 to over 30 years of service.
GradeYears of Service
Over 24 Over 27 Over 30
1st 193.20 200.10 207.00
2nd 159.60 165.30 171.00
3rd 134.40 139.20 144.00
4th 109.20 113.10 117.00
5th 92.40 95.70 99.00
6th 75.60 78.30 81.00
7th 70.00 72.50 75.00

Note 1: The "E" and "O" pay grades did not come until the approval of the Career Compensation Act of 1949 however, for comparison purposes, the 1st Grade, is the same as today's E-7 7th Grade is the same as E-1.

Note 2: Chief petty officers under acting appointment shall be included in the first grade at a monthly base pay of $126.

1942-1946 Military Officer Base Pay Chart

The pay of the sixth period shall be paid to colonels of the Army, captains of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade to lieutenant colonels of the Army, commanders of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade, and lieutenant commanders of the line and Engineer Corps of the Coast Guard, who have completed thirty years' service and to the Chief of Chaplains of the Army when not holding rank above that of colonel.

The pay of the fifth period shall be paid to lieutenant colonels of the Army, commanders of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade who are not entitled to the pay of the sixth period and to majors of the Army, lieutenant commanders of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade, who have completed twenty-three years' service.

The pay of the fourth period shall be paid to majors of the Army, lieutenant commanders of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade who are not entitled to the pay of the fifth period to captains of the Army, lieutenants of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade, who have completed seventeen years' service.

The pay of the third period shall be paid to captains of the Army, lieutenants of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade who are not entitled to the pay of the fourth period to first lieutenants of the Army, lieutenants (junior grade) of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade, who have completed ten years' service.

The pay of the second period shall be paid to first lieutenants of the Army, lieutenants (junior grade) of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade who are not entitled to the pay of the third period and to second lieutenants of the Army, ensigns of the Navy, and officers of corresponding grade, who have completed five years' service and to contract surgeons serving full time.

The pay of the first period shall be paid to all other officers.

For Warrant Officer pay, refer to Section 8 of Public Law 77-607.

Effective June 1, 1942 through June 30, 1946.

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Military Pay

1940's Pay Scales

1942-1946 military base pay chart for active officer and enlisted personnel of the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.

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