A river in Washington State.
(AOG-26: dp. 845; 1. 220'6"; b. 37'; dr. 13'1"; s. 10 k.;
cpl. 62; a. 1 3"; cl. Mettawee)
Chiwaukam (AOG-26) was launched 4 May 1944 by East Coast Shipyards, Inc., Bayonne, N.J., under a Maritime Commission contract, sponsored by Mrs. A. H. Moore; acquired by the Navy and commissioned 25 July 1944, Lieutenant C. S. Hoag, USCGR, in command.
Clearing Norfolk 23 September 1944, Chiwaukam sailed to load oil at Aruba, Netherlands West Indies, and reached Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 25 November. She stood out of Espiritu Santo 2 December for the New Guinea area where she operated as a gasoline tanker until 18 January 1945 when she reported for similar duty in the Philippines. Departing Samar, P.I. 12 December 1945, Chiwaukam arrived at San Francisco g February. She remained there until 17 April when she put out for Norfolk, arriving 16 May. Chiwaukam was decommissioned 31 May 1946 and transferred to Turkey 10 May 1948.
- E class training boat
- TCG E-1 (A-1531)
- TCG E-2 (A-1532)
- TCG E-3 (A-1533)
- TCG E-4 (A-1534)
- TCG E-5 (A-1535)
- TCG E-6 (A-1536)
- TCG E-7 (A-1537)
- TCG E-8 (A-1538)
- Çınar class coastal tanker ( /> Germany FW 1 class):
- ex FW-1 ex FW-2 ex FW-4
- ex USS Chiwaukum (AOG-26)
- Van class water tanker: ΐ]
- Albay Hakkı Burak class liquid fuel tanker:
- Akar class fleet support ship: Α]
- Collaboration is going to be key to Australia establishing itself.
- Partnerships, as demonstrated at conferences such as AOG.
- Technology &ndash there is a huge data lake that exists here. Data that is available to understand how to further economise and optimise the commodities that we have here.
- Most importantly, the skills and knowledge transfer that will benefit those Australians that work in our great industry.
- Standardisation across our business and industry. As is evident here at the AOG Conference, industry is coming together. We&rsquore publishing forward work plans, we&rsquore talking about ways that workers, contractors and others can interface with us in more simple ways. We don&rsquot need five or six solutions or standards, but just one standard.
- That takes coordinating on work such as our turnaround schedules
- Our partnership with industry and government on the LNG Jobs Taskforce - forward work plans standardising local content reporting and an aligned skills framework for operators.
- ex /> Germany Bodensee
Chiwaukum Range Traverse
“The Chiwaukum Mountains rise to 8,000 feet, the first range south of the Stevens Pass Highway corridor…. the range can give a feeling of grandness, especially while hiking into its deepest basins or across its highest passes….Lying little more than five miles east of the Cascade Crest, and thrust a thousand feet higher than summits along the divide, the Chiwaukums (receive) enough moisture from winter snowpack and summer rainstorms to create large areas of lush vegetation.” – East of the Divide by Chester Marler.
Traversing the Chiwaukums
by Andy Dappen with photos from Coron Polley The sky was already an ominous gray as Coron Polley, Tom Janisch, and I left the Icicle River following the Chatter Creek Trail toward the Chiwaukum Range on Sunday morning. We walked hoping that Friday’s weather forecast (unseasonably cool with fair weather until Monday night) would return to replace Saturday’s newer forecast (warmer, wetter weather would deliver rain by Sunday night). Not having checked the forecast on Saturday, I had packed my uber-light raincoat and a plump down coat that would help keep me warm in a 1.5-pound sleeping bag during unseasonably cool weather. Upward we went with me pondering the better rain coat and the Polarguard coat I should have brought for what might become a wet trip. “I hate skiing in the rain,” I thought as we followed this steep trail that stair-stepped into the sky.
Photo Left: Moving toward snow country while climbing the Chatter Creek Trail.
A few hours of climbing brought us to the doorstep of snowcountry at about 4,800 feet. By 5,300 feet, intermittent snow had turned into a wall-to-wall white carpet and the antlers we carried fell off our packs and snapped onto feet. Soon we were striding beside Lake Edna telling stories of old autumn trips through the area when the green larches had gone gold, the blueberries had gone red, and the emerald Lake Edna had gone, well, emerald.
Onward we strode toward Snowgrass Mountain, which was occasionally tickling the bottom of clouds, occasionally disappearing in one of those hungry, gray amoebas. Saturday’s pessimistic forecast was looking more probable than the rose-colored forecast of Friday, but Snowgrass Mountain, rewarded our efforts to climb it. The clouds lifted as we approached and, from the top, we witnessed the crumpled chaos of this sub-range of the Cascades characterized by black craggy summit ridges and wide basins scooped by the spoons of now extinct pocket glaciers.
Photo Right: On the summit of Snowgrass Mountain.
From Snowgrass, we knew camp at the bottom of the colossal toilet bowl containing Lake Charles would soon be reached. Here we would pull sweat-soaked feet from plastic-shelled boots and, with cups of tea in hand, feast our eyes upon our Cascadian kingdom. Or so we thought. The col (7,500 feet) providing our portal to the lake and looking so innocuous from Snowgrass Mountain proved to be fortified by rock slabs and splintered crags that were dangerous for oafs of our ilk to scramble in ski boots.
We explored several leads through the rock barrier but, without a rope, these looked like pleasant invitations for a gruesome bludgeoning by gravity. Eventually the intrepid Coron, embarrassed by the feeble efforts of his elders, split off and explored a scramble that, with just a few exposed moves, provided successful passage to the pass. From this gap, we skied the spectacular but mushy slopes down to the imprisoned waters of Lake Charles.
Photo Left and Right: Descending into the colossal toilet bowl of Lake Charles.
Much later than we anticipated, we set up camp beside a snow-free island of scree and kicked back to watch the sun set. It was a beautiful show with rising popcorn clouds that glowed pink and distant banks of alto-cumulous clouds that flamed red. It was certainly a sailor’s delight and we settled into the tent knowing that Friday’s fantastic forecast had returned – uberlight raincoats and heavier down coats were apparently the wardrobes of geniuses.
Photo Left: Red sky at night, sailor’s delight.
When I pulled my earplugs early Monday morning, however, all traces of genius had leaked from my ears. Rather than silence, I heard rain drumming our canopy. In such weather even Tom Janisch, the ever-enthusiastic Labrador retriever, was content to huddle in the tent and wait. We slept, we made coffee, we made more coffee, and finally there was nothing to do but face the weather.
Photo to the Right…Left: Camp at night. Right: Camp in the morning. Apparently sailors don’t know jack.
Suburbia rolled into a wet wad and was stuffed into packs and, clad in our Leaktex storm shells and Absorbtex ski pants, we strode upward into the mist. The visibility improved as we climbed and, several hundred vertical feet below the summit of Big Chiwaukum, we pondered booting up a very steep snow gulley to make the top but were deterred by the disconcertingly soft snow, Instead we contoured to a 7800-foot shoulder north of the summit where we looked west over the other side of the peak into an even thicker reservoir of moisture being dammed by the barrier of this divide.
Photo Left: Near the summit of Big Chiwaukum looking into clouds dammed by the divide.
We stripped skins and descended to a 7,400-foot pass hovering above Cup Lake. The plan had been to visit Cup Lake, climb to McCue Ridge, and move along this north-south spur until we intersected the Chiwaukum Birthday Tour that Tom and I had skied a few years ago. We would finish this traverse with a steep descent of The Swath which would drop us down into the Highway 2 corridor. Given the day’s soupy weather and the ongoing drizzle, we opted for a more direct exit that had us contouring steep slopes over to Deadhorse Pass (7,200’).
Photo Right: Soupy days make for soupy views.
From here we enjoyed buttery turns through the spring snowpack as we descended consolidated west-facing slopes all the way down to the Wildhorse Trail (4,950′). The trail was still snow-covered, but as we followed it north for half a mile, the snow became patchy and we saddled up the skis. Over the next few hours as we dropped down the Wildhorse and Whitepine trails leading to the car, we talked about different trips we had each taken in this area. The common denominator of our adventures was that none of us seemed to see people back in this forgotten corner of our local mountains.
Photo Left: The downward migration leading from winter to spring.
The drizzle continued, we were damp from rain and sweat, but the walk through the dripping cedar forest with neon green new growth, rain-spackled trilliums, and optic yellow violets was beautiful. Curiously I found myself thinking, “I love walking in the rain.”
Photo Right: Moisturized trillium lilies. Below Left: When there’s a trail, slide alder can be pretty.
Maps: See maps of the route below for more information.
Leave It Better than You Found It. This should be every user’s goal. Pick up trash left by others, pull noxious weeds along your route, throw branches over unwanted spur trails, etc.
Disclaimer. Treat this information as recommendations, not gospel. Conditions change and those contributing these reports are volunteers–they may make mistakes or not know all the issues affecting a route. You are responsible for yourself, your actions, and your safety. If you won’t accept that responsibility, you are prohibited from using our information.
Chiwaukam AOG-26 - History
The Tonga Formation of the North Cascades, Washington, consists of weakly deformed, bedded feldspathic graywacke and shale metamorphosed at chlorite to staurolite grade. Analysis of protolith lithology, Rb-Sr isotopic signature, and plutonic, metamorphic, and deformational evolution in the Tonga Formation suggests that this unit is correlative with the Chiwaukum Schist of the Cascades crystalline core. The Tonga Formation occurs on the flank of the Late Cretaceous orogen, whereas high-grade Chiwaukum Schist is exposed in the core of the orogen. Metamorphic pressure, as reflected by the distribution of metamorphic minerals and thermobarometry, increases continuously northward in the Tonga Formation from the chlorite zone (<4 kbar) to the staurolite zone (≈ 7 kbar) and then to the kyanite zone (≈ 7 kbar) in the Chiwaukum Schist. The findings reported herein do not support the previously advanced concept that the Cascades crystalline core represents the Easton blueschist terrane that was converted into higher-temperature metamorphic rock by thermal relaxation after cessation of subduction. The results of this study suggest a relatively simple two-stage metamorphic history for the Chiwaukum Schist represented by 90-93 Ma shallow contact metamorphism, overprinted by Harrovian metamorphism that increased sharply in pressure from south-west to northeast and reached peak conditions after 90 Ma, all events occurring in a plutonic/magmatic arc setting.
Chasing the Chiwaukum — Washington Cascades Ski Traverse
Eric Messerschmidt drops into a couloir mid-way on the Chiwaukum Traverse. Click images to enlarge.
The Chiwaukum Range is a relatively hidden gem amongst the peaks of the Central Cascades, and often considered to be the cousin to the peaks of the famous Enchantment Lakes Basin in the state of Washington.
With a series of canceled trips due to conditions and logistics, I was eager to get out on something longer and more committing in the mountains. When my friend Eric, who operates the semi-backcountry cabins of Scottish Lakes High Camp, mentioned the Chiwaukum Range traverse just outside his backdoor, I was immediately sold. The notion of ending our trip at High Camp, and utilizing amenities such as a wood-burning sauna and hot tub had me motivated over other ideas floating around. So after we checked the weather and found mostly high pressure thanks to the crest effect (aka rain shadow), Casey, Eric, and I were on our way to spend the next few days in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness.
A beta photo from Washington Backcountry Ski and Snowboard Routes by Martin Volken.
After parting words from our dear friends about “two split boarders and a tele-skier doing a ski traverse” (thanks Louie!) we chuckled and started skinning around 5 pm to get the 7 plus miles of flat road out of the way. We were camped at the Chatter Creek Trailhead by dark in a convenient dry patch.
Classic road approaches in the lowlands. Why didn’t we hotwire a sled again?
Sometimes you just can’t take the time to transition…hopefully you brought your dirt skins?
The following morning we skinned on (mostly) snow up the trail to the Chatter Creek drainage below Grindstone Mountain. Within a few hours we were back in wintery conditions and a thick snowpack. After gaining the first ridge, which would send us into the Index Creek drainage, it was our first glimpse at a north/northeast aspect, which we would have to ski several more times in the next couple days. During the previous days of skiing around High Camp we noticed that wind slabs were developing and we were concerned at the potential of them stepping down to lower layers in the snowpack. Fortunately we were able to safely mitigate potential hazard by cutting a cornice and then belaying a ski cut. The results inspired confidence in the slope stability, so we descended into the next drainage and enjoyed great snow on the way down.
Casey Engstrom making his way out of the Chatter Creek Drainage.
Jonathan Cooper and Eric Messerschmidt cutting a cornice.
Looking out over the following day’s objective. The route takes you through the center of the big slope with high consequence terrain below. Snowgrass Mountain is the non-prominent high point in the right of the photo.
Eric enjoying some mellow turns.
We returned to our Black Diamond Mega (aka circus tent) and slept a full night before waking up to one of the more stunning sunrises I’ve seen in awhile. With partial cloud cover, we decided that we weren’t in as big of a rush to get out of camp and enjoyed the morning light. Once over the col from the previous night we stopped to assess a slope with a similar aspect to the one we had to traverse, which we deemed an important use of our time. Our arrival at the next slope was both daunting and exciting. In the time it took for us to transition to make our way across the first section, the temperature started to increase with a break in the clouds. As we made our way across the slope and through the two obvious terrain traps, we started to notice slough and pinwheels coming down from the cliffs above. At this point we were committed to moving across the slope. Despite putting significant distance between the three of us to mitigate exposure we were aware that our timing was off. We regrouped in a safe zone and discussed the next moves. Fortunately the clouds were moving back in and the slope ahead had significantly less hazard in terms of terrain above and below our skin track. We were all humbled by how quickly the slope heated up and were reminded to remain vigilant in our decision making for the terrain ahead, which was more of the same slope aspect.
One of the many reasons why these trips are so special.
Eric moves across a slope in the Index Creek drainage.
Looking back at our route. The clouds kept the sun off at the right moment.
With a heightened awareness, a warming and transitioning snowpack, and the need to keep moving, we opted to not ski from the top of Snowgrass Mountain (like the original route does) and make our way to the Glacier Creek drainage to get across the next southeast slope under cloud cover. After a few route finding shenanigans trying to find the correct passage through the cliff bands blocking our way down, we arrived at the top of a steep north facing couloir. We built a snow anchor with a pair of skis and I belayed Eric as he made a ski cut across the top of the slope. After descending into the drainage and gaining a new perspective on our route, we were fortunate to have a thick cloud cover to keep things stable for us to cross. The flip side of this thick cloud cover was that our chance to ski the noteworthy couloir off the summit of Big Chiwaukum had diminished. Regardless, we were stoked to have conditions for a safe crossing.
Eric setting up for a ski cut.
We arrived at Larch Lake after a 1500-foot descent in flat light and had made it through the crux terrain of the whole traverse. After a moderately stressful day, we setup camp and slept well that night. The following day is where we diverted from the original route, which goes down a long drainage to Highway 2. Instead we poked around and did some skiing in the Larch Lake basin and eventually made our way up McCue Ridge and down to High Camp. Coming down to a stoked fire, a warm hot tub, and an immediate whiskey slap was absolutely the best way to end a trip through such a beautiful and relatively remote wilderness.
Our last night at Larch Lake.
No time to set your ski poles down for a whiskey slap.
All in all, the traverse took us over 17 miles and about 9000 feet of both elevation gain/loss. The Chiwaukum Traverse is another seldom traveled corner of the Cascades that is often talked about but rarely completed. I would quickly jump on another opportunity to spend more time out there skiing the lines we weren’t able to on this trip.
Correlation of the Tonga Formation and the Chiwaukum Schist, North Cascades, Washington: Implications for Late Cretaceous orogenic mechanisms
The Tonga Formation of the North Cascades, Washington, consists of weakly deformed, bedded feldspathic graywacke and shale metamorphosed at chlorite to staurolite grade. Analysis of protolith lithology, Rb-Sr isotopic signature, and plutonic, metamorphic, and deformational evolution in the Tonga Formation suggests that this unit is correlative with the Chiwaukum Schist of the Cascades crystalline core. The Tonga Formation occurs on the flank of the Late Cretaceous orogen, whereas high-grade Chiwaukum Schist is exposed in the core of the orogen. Metamorphic pressure, as reflected by the distribution of metamorphic minerals and thermobarometry, increases continuously northward in the Tonga Formation from the chlorite zone (<4 kbar) to the staurolite zone (≈ 7 kbar) and then to the kyanite zone (≈ 7 kbar) in the Chiwaukum Schist. The findings reported herein do not support the previously advanced concept that the Cascades crystalline core represents the Easton blueschist terrane that was converted into higher-temperature metamorphic rock by thermal relaxation after cessation of subduction. The results of this study suggest a relatively simple two-stage metamorphic history for the Chiwaukum Schist represented by 90–93 Ma shallow contact metamorphism, overprinted by Harrovian metamorphism that increased sharply in pressure from south–west to northeast and reached peak conditions after 90 Ma, all events occurring in a plutonic/magmatic arc setting.
Speech AOG conference opening session: driving opportunity, generating confidence through LNG
Western Australia has built a world-class LNG industry and world-class LNG infrastructure.
Just 10 years ago, Australia had only six operating LNG trains - today there are 21 LNG trains and Chevron is involved in 10 of those.
Its an everchanging world. In 2005, natural gas prices were $19.26 and today they rest slightly under $2.00.
We see coronavirus, markets in some turmoil and the industry and others working to adjust to a very competitive landscape and we will have to continue to do so.
At the base of society and at the base of progressing all cultures is energy. Energy such as LNG is going to be critical to solving the world&rsquos problems.
Competitiveness is key. Australian gas must remain internationally competitive and establish itself as an ever-increasing low-cost producer.
Australia&rsquos future success requires the low-cost development of resources and leveraging what differentiates Australia from other places in the world:
Let me give you some examples where this is being put into action:
There is an increasing social expectation and moral obligation that we lower our carbon footprint. Natural gas as it exists today, in its form today will not be enough. We will have to do more to strive for lower carbon standards for the future.
One example of how we are deploying technologies to continue to reduce our carbon footprint is the Gorgon carbon dioxide (CO2) injection project which is now fully operational.
Three trains which will capture up to 4 million tonnes of CO2 per year - equivalent to more than a million electric vehicles put onto the road.
Over the life of the asset there will be over 100 million tonnes that will be injected into this carbon capture facility.
We are also going to have to unlock the data that exists.
We&rsquore going to have to find the hidden treasures and secrets that exist in that data so we can become more economic, more efficient, more optimised and more focused on the markets that we&rsquore going to supply.
We are using data science to maximise production and minimise downtime on our rotating equipment. Data is gathered, brought to central locations and analysed continually and we&rsquore able to see things that enable us to remain reliable and continue to produce LNG.
Investing in our people is going to be another critical action we need to take as a nation.
At Chevron, we have more than 130 Australians on global assignments that are gaining knowledge and bringing their own expertise. They will come back and contribute to local businesses and the local economy.
These cross-culture experiences provide diverse ways of working, thinking and doing, along with exposure to different technologies, markets and business best practices.
We currently have 20 Australian-based people working directly with the main FEED contractor on our subsea compression project, in Norway. This knowledge and technology transfer returns to Australia, continuing to develop our local capability.
As we work to develop the energy that improves lives and powers the world forward, we need to collaborate form stronger partnerships take technology and data and use it to our advantage and advance the skills and knowledge of the workers who will continue to help our industries to be profitable.
In doing so, we will continue to innovate and create solutions that will bring energy to the world.
When I think about Australia&rsquos &lsquofair dinkum&rsquo approach, we&rsquoll do it with integrity, competitiveness and we&rsquoll establish ourselves as the world&rsquos leading provider of LNG.
With decades of experience in the aviation aftermarket, we know the value of earning a customer's trust. This approach is instilled into the company’s culture and is essential to meeting customer needs and delivering a quality product, on time, at a competitive price. These are principles and goals that employees are proud to represent, and AvAir has benefitted from a near-zero turnover rate in 20 years of operation.
Three core values guide everything we do
Relationships over Profit
Privately Held forGreater Autonomy
As a privately held company, AvAir is nimble and can act fast. Our team has vast experience and industry knowledge, and is empowered to make decisions. This difference, along with a well-earned reputation for integrity and fairness, attracts alliances from around the world. As a result, customers enjoy an efficient sales process and outstanding value.
Over the past 20 years, our operations have expanded from buying and selling rotable and consumable components (now exceeding 26 million in-stock parts) to offering strategic solutions for meeting the inventory needs of our customers and suppliers.
Global Leader withSmall Company Values
A global leader in the aviation aftermarket, we continue to stay true to our core values and the personalized service that earns us the trust and business of our customers.
It's simple. We guarantee our pricing to be the best in the industry, with delivery when and where you need it. But even more importantly, whether you want to buy, sell, exchange, loan, lease, or consign, AvAir can create a strategic, customized solution that meets your needs.
AvAir is committed to minimizing our impact on the environment. One of the biggest steps we’ve taken is designing our new facility to be powered primarily with clean solar energy. This results in a tremendous reduction in carbon emissions as compared to conventional energy sources.
From collaborative map building to Location Sharing and offline adventuring, CalTopo is the one app that does it all.
Multiple editors | Real-time updates | Stackable Layers
Slope Angle Shading helps you avoid steep terrain when finding routes.
Hourly data from SNOTEL stations lets you know exactly what to expect.
Hi-res weekly and lo-res daily satellite images give a picture of current and changing conditions.
Water is heavy. Get real-time data for over 7,500 streams and reservoirs and pack a filter instead.
Wind & Weather
Elevation specific forecasts lets you know if if you need to pack that extra warm puffy.
Check if the route you're planning takes you across private land or keeps you in the clear.
Plan Your Next Adventure Together, Even When You're Miles Apart
Multiple users can edit the same map at the same time. Edits will appear in real-time for all users.
It's not just "sharing" maps. We're talking real collaboration.
Transition seamlessly between your computer and mobile.
The hassle of downloading and transferring GPX files between different apps is in the past.
Download maps and routes for offline use. Make edits in the field and have them update once you get reception.
Online Journal for E&P Geoscientists
A paleocurrent study of the Chiwaukum graben, a major structural depression in central Washington, illustrates the usefulness of paleocurrent indicators in determining a more complete picture of a basin's geological history--beyond the more traditional uses regarding depositional environment and provenance. For the Chiwaukum graben, paleocurrent mapping has given considerable insight into the structural development of the area.
The Chiwaukum graben is bounded on the east and west by the Entiat and Leavenworth faults, respectively, and preserves a lower and a middle Tertiary sequence of fluviatile sandstones, shales, and conglomerates. Paleocurrent studies of the lower Tertiary sandstones demonstrate that the dominant paleotransport direction in the central portion of the graben was southwesterly (233°).
An integrated interpretation of paleocurrent and other data suggests that the area of the Entiat Mountains was the primary source area and a topographic high during deposition. Paleocurrent data also support the existence of exposed bedrock hills within the graben during sedimentation. Due to a lack of northeast-oriented paleocurrent vectors near the Leavenworth fault, the area southwest of the fault probably had little topographic expression and possibly was a site of deposition during at least part of lower Tertiary time. Paleocurrent analysis suggests that major relief along central and northern portions of the Leavenworth fault may be postdepositional.
AAPG Search and Discovery Article #91038©1987 AAPG Annual Convention, Los Angeles, California, June 7-10, 1987.