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Philip II DD-498 - History

Philip II DD-498 - History

Philip II DD-498

Philip II(DD-498: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9", s. 35 k.cpl. 273; a. 5 5", 4 40mm, 4 20mm, 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 6 dct.; cl. Fletcher)The second Philip (DD 498) was laid down by the Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N.J., 7 May 1942; launched 13 October 1942; sponsored by Mrs. Barrett Philip and commissioned 21 November 1942, Comdr. Thomas C. Ragan in command.Philip's first mission eame during the early morning of 30 June 1943, when she bombarded installations in the Shortland Islands area in the southwest Pacific. Operating in the screen of the Seeond Transport Group, Philip, on 15 August 1943, made a good showing in her first serape with the enemy. Several bomb splashes were seen near Barakoma Beach, Vella Lavella, indicating that Japanese bombers were attacking the LCI's unloading there. A few minutes later, two dive bombers headed for Phili p to unload their explosives. Each plane dropped a bomb but both missed. The first plane, taken under fire by the ship's guns, kept getting closer until a friendly Corsair took over the fight. Guns were shifted to the second and they soon found their range, splashing tho piano into the sea.Enemy planes eame back for another attack at nightfall. Silhouetted clearly against a full moon, Philip picked out the most desirable target. One torpedo wake passed a few yards astern and another crossed parallel to the ship after it was seen in time to take evasive action. The ship's guns kept barking at one of the bombers, finally shooting it down.Again during the next evening, Japanose planes eame in to pay their regular visit. This time their objective proved to be the cumbersome LST's withdrawing from Barakoma Beach. While laying a heavy smoke screen and shooting at the planes Philip collided with Waller (DD-466) under the cover of her own smoke. AIthough damage to both vessels resulted, damage control parties of both ships rigged up shoring to prevent flooding and stayed in the battle. Philip kept her guns blazing away at the swarming Japanese, one plane was shot down and another was claimed as a possible kill.There was no let-up from enemy raids on the next day as the Japanese pressed their attempts to dislodge American forces from their toehold on the Solomons. One dive bomber sent his torpedo flying between the ship's stacks and another went splashing into the sea 30 yards to port. A seond attack brought another close eall; two torpedoes dropped 15 yards astern. Philip's gunners shot down one of the dive bombers.Two days later, while leading a convoy out of Tulagi, the destroyer launched a pair of atteeks on what appeared to be a Japanese sub, without damage to the enemy.On 27 October, the destoyer fired at mortar emplacements on Mono Island and then eame into Blanehe Harbor, Treasury Island, Solomons. Six Val-type enemy planes zoomed into the harbor in an attempt to destroy the transports sitting there. The attack was repelled and Philip did her share by sending one plane away in flames.A barge sweep off Bougainville and bombardment of Choiseul Bay was conducted on 8 January 1944; ten days later, the destroyer returned for another blow on Bougainville, raking the island's northeast shores with surface fire.Leading a convoy of LCI's into Bougainville on 15 February, Philip weathered a bombing attack reminiscent of her earlier days; but she retaliated in like manner, damaging one plane and repelling the others.After a methodical bombardment of Empress Augusta Bay 14 March, Philip left to take part in a tedious campaign in the Marianas. From 17 June to the end of July, the destroyer's guns blazed red hot as they hammered almost daily at enemy positions on Saipan and Tinian. Known gun emplacements, troop eoneentrations, and air fields were the main targets although several swipes were also taken at small craft in Tinian and boats in Tanapag Harbor.The Philippines eame next. An assault on Mindoro, 12-15 December, was her initial step. One airplane was damaged in the battle. More fieree airplane attacks eame when Philip joined a screening force around a resupply echelon traveling from Leyte to Mindoro, later that month. Frequent raids with coordinated bombing and suicide attacks by as many as six planes at one time greeted the slow convoy during its entire trip. Two of the attackers were shot down by the destroyer and another was damaged. A 20-millimeter shell, fired by an LCT at a Japanese plane, landed upon the aluminum spray shield on the ship's starboard bridge wing, tearing a hole in the structure and wounding two men. One of the wounded men died five hours after the accident.Many of the ships were not as fortunate as Philip which escaped with comparatively little damage. Suiciders had a field day in crashing into the not easily maneuverable merehant ships.Gan~evoort (DD-608) received a suicide hit and Philip steamed to her comrade's rescue. Two of her men, acting upon their own initiative boarded the eripoled destroyer, set her depth charges on safe, and jettisoned them.Steaming out of Leyte 5 January 1945, Philip sailed to join a task group which went on to invade Lingayen Gulf, Luzon Island, Philippines, 9 January. The destroyer remained in the area until 12 January, screening the transports as they unloaded. Several air attacks and suicide boat assaults were encountered during the journey from Leyte.During the dark early morning of 10 January, the destroyer challenged a small boat which it picked up on radar. The small craft, acting queerly, did not reply. After illuminating the small explosive-laden boat, Philip opened with its 20-millimeter and .45 sub-machine guns. The boat turned sharply headed directly for the ship's port side amidships, but was exploded 20 yards short of her mark.Two brief fire support missions were conducted in the oeeupation of Zamboanga Peninsula, Mindanao, during March and assaults on Sanga Sanga and Jolo Islands, Sulu Arehipelago, Philippines, were successfully conducted by Philip during 2-10 April.On 30 April, the destoyer joined a special attack unit to transport, protect, and establish units of the 26th Australian Brigade on Sanau, Borneo, N.E.I. Major landings on Tarakan Island followed a day later; enemy opposition in force was surprisingly absent.Relieved of radar picket duty off Brunei Bay on 12 June, Philip rendezvoused with a minesweeping group and left toclear the area of Miri-Luton, Sarawak, Borneo, in preparation for an assault which was to eome seven days later.Having previously paved the way for an assault landing on Brunei Bay, Borneo, Philip covered the "sweeps" while preparations were made for the next invasion A total of 246 mines were eut loose from the heavily-planted area, not without loss of much valuable sweep gear. Hostile gun positions in the Miri area were softened by the destroyer while the minesweepers performed their chores.Elements of the First Australian Corps, loaded at Morotai landed at Balikpapan, Borneo, 1 July, while Philip stood guard for enemy attempts to hinder the invasion. Remaining in the area until 19 July, the destroyer bombarded the surrounding shores and helped repel such feeble air attacks as the Japanese could muster.The end of the war followed the Borneo operation but it did not bring about immediate return to the United States for the busy destroyer. She was sent to China on mine destruction duty and remained in the Pacific area until late in 1945.The veteran destroyer got back to the West Coast just in time to allow the crew to spend New Year's Eve on home soil. She subsequently sailed to the Atlantic and, by Direetive dated January 1947, was placed out of commission, in reserve attached to the U.S. Atlantic Reserve Fleet, berthed at Charleston, S.C.Philip's elassifieation was changed to DDE 498 on 26 March 1949.Philip recommissioned at Charleston, S.C. 30 June 1950, and sailed to the Panama Canal Zone and San Diego enroute to her new home port, Pearl Harbor. Here she arrived 10 September 1950, and immediately assumed her part in advaneed hunter-killer exercises. During the autumn of 1950 Philip acted as plane guard for the aircraft bearing President Harry S. Truman to his mid-ocean eonferenee with General Douglas MaeArthur on Wake Island.Philip departed Pearl Harbor 1 June 1951 for Midway and Yokosuka, Japan. On 15 June, she joined Task Force 77 in the Sea of Japan for duty screening the fast carrier task force as It conducted air operations against enemy forces in North Korea. She returned to Japan for antiffubmarine warfare exereises from 30 June to 10 July, and next day sailed for Taiwan and duty on patrol in the Taiwan Straits. A visit to Hong Kong which began 29 July was interrupted by Typhoon "Louise." Through August, Philip continued her patrol duties, and early in September oondueted anti-submarine exercises off Okinawa until 11 September when she put into Yokosuka for upkeep.On 24 September 1951 Philip was bound for the east coast of Korea. Here she had escort duty with Task Force 77 until 3 October, when she received orders which sent her to duty on the west coast of Korea with the United Nations Naval Forces which included Australian and English units. Hore Philip screened the carrier group, and served to enforce the naval blockade on the 38th parallel.Fighting her way through the most devastating typhoon in years, "Ruth," Philip steamed back to duty with Task Force 77, joining up 15 October. Released from this duty 31 October. Philip proceeded to Yokosuka, and departed 2 November for Pearl Harbor.On arriving at Pearl Harbor, the ship commenced a yard period, which was followed by a period of refresher training. Underway training and planeguard duty continued until 27 October 1952, when Philip began a short dryDock period, uart of herpreparation for another tour of duty in the Korean ~onfliet. She departed Pearl Harbor 10 November, bound for Yokosuka, Japan, where she arrived ten days later.Late in the afternoon of 25 November 1952 Philip joined Task Force 78, and began duty in the screen of the task force. Later duty included a shore bombardment patrol in company with Los Angeles (CA-135) in the vicinity of latitude 38°30'N off the east coast of Korea. On 5 December, the two vessels entered Wonsan Harbor to fire on shore targets, and then returned to the bombline to earry out eall fire missions. Steady steaming with TF-78 was resumed from 8 December until 27 December, interrupted only by a night search for a sonar eontset and two rescue missions for pilots of downed aircraft. After a period of tender availability in Yokosuka, Philip resumed similar duty until May 1953.Philip returned to Pearl Harbor 29 May 1953, and operated for a month in training exercises. Late in June she began anintensive three month overhaul at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard. Overhaul completed, she returned to a busy sohedule of operations in the Hawaiian group which included search and rescue missions, anti-submarine exercises, praetiee shore bombardment, and carrier plane guard duties.A major fleet exercise occupied Philip during the first months of 1954, and she then began preparations for another journey to the WesternPacific On 14 June, she stood out for Yokosuka, Japan, where she arrived 23 June, mooring alongside Hamul (AD-20) for two days of tender availability. Philip then got underway for the Shimonoseki Straits and Chinhae, Korea. After reDOrting for duty with Task Force 95, Philip steamed to Inehon to join HMS Warrior and aet as planeguard for the British carrier on the United Nations Blockade. Philip escorted Warrior to Kure, Japan, 4 July, and sailed on to Sasebo for a week's restricted availability.After further service in Korean waters, Philip left Japan for Pearl Harbor, arriving home 29 August 1954 for a month's overhaul, She resumed operations in the Hawaiian Islands until 15 March 1955, when she entered the yard for a eomprehensive overhaul. Overhaul was followed by refresher training and preparation for another Far Eastern deployment. On 8 August 1955, she sailed for Yokosuka, Japan, arriving ten days later. On this tour of duty, she participated in large scale antisubmarine warfare exercises off Okinawa, operated with Task Force 77, and served on the Taiwan Patrol before heading for home 6 January 1956.Operations in Hawaiian waters ocoupied Philip between 15 January 1956, and 30 October, when she onee more took departure for the Far East. Serving primarily in Japanese waters, Philip completed a shorter tour than previously, and was back home in Pearl Harbor 22 January 1957. During 1957, she joined Destroyer Squadron 25, unique in its three divisions, rather than the usual two. The escort destroyers of Destroyer Squadron 25 were so deployed that one division of the three was in the Far East at any given time, and it was on this schedule that Philip onee more sailed for the Orient 27 December.Arriving in Yokosuka 5 January 1958 Phtlip served on exereises off Japan and Okinawa, in the Philippine Islands, and in the South China Sea until 23 April, when her division began the homeward bound voyage by an unusual route. Arriving in Brisbane, Australia 2 May, Philip visited Melbourne and Sydney, Australia, Wellington, New Zealand; and Pago Pago, Samoa, before returning to Pearl Harbor 29 May. IIere she resumed her operations in the Hawaiian Group throughout the remainder of 1958.From the latter part of June 1958 until the end of January 1959, Philip took part in hunter-killer operations conducted shore bombardment, air and surface shoots, single and dual ship antisubmarine exercises, and furfilled the duties of planeguard destroyer for the super carrier Ranger. On 18 February Philip and the other escort destroyers of DesDiv 252 got underway and proceeded to Yokosuka', Japan. Philip operated around Japan and in the South ~hina Sea before arriving Brisbane, Australia, 11 July. The deployment ended at Pearl Harbor 30 July.The division sailed from Honolulu again for Yokosuka 22 April 1960. After operating in the waters of Japan and Okinawa Philip returned to Pearl Harbor 29 October 1960. On 4 February 1962 Philip was off for Yokosuka again. This cruise was spent in the waters of Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Effeetive 1 July 1962 Philip was redesignated from DDE to DD. Philip returned to Pearl Harbor 18 July 1962.Philip steamed again for Yokosuka 12 November 1963 operating again in Japanese, Philippine, and Vietnamese waters, and returning to Pearl Harbor 10 April 1964. After another period of operations out of Hawaii, Philip steamed for Yokosuka again 19 April 1965. This cruise was highlighted by duty on Yankee Station off Vietnam and by patrol of the Taiwan straits. She returned home 1 October 1965. She decommissioned 30 September 1968 and was struck from the Navy List 1 October 1968.Philip received nine battle stars for World War II service and five battle stars for Korean War Service.


Philip II

When Charles abdicated his various lands (1555–56), Philip II (1556–98) succeeded to all his father’s dominions except Germany. His empire in Europe, now without the imperial title, was still only a loose union of independent states recognizing the same head. Philip, a great traditionalist, was not the man to inspire his different subjects with a new unifying idea, though he improved the central administration of his empire by the creation of the Council of Italy (1558). But his own Castilian upbringing and preferences increased the tendency toward transforming the Holy Roman Empire into a Castilian empire. Six of the nine viceroys Philip appointed to govern Sicily were Spaniards, as were all those of Naples with the single exception of one, Antoine Cardinal Perrenot de Granvelle, and 10 out of 13 governors of Milan. In the Spanish viceroyalties of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, and Navarre and in those of Mexico and Peru, none but Spaniards, preferably Castilians, were ever thought of at all, with the exception of one or two Italians. These were the key figures in Philip II’s empire, and they were backed by the commanders of the Spanish regiments. Fortresses were nearly always governed by Castilians. It was necessary to appoint natives to military commands only in the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands).

When the viceroys and governors were appointed, they were given “secret” instructions—in short, ones not meant for purely propagandistic purposes. These instructions reflected the current commonplaces of Christian government that could be found in scores of “Mirrors of Princes” (handbooks of government popular at the time) published in the 16th century and that Philip had made his own. The governors were to represent the king—not the state or the Spanish empire—as if he were present in person it was stressed that they were not appointed for their own benefit but for that of the community they were sent to govern they were to watch so that the king’s subjects might sleep in peace and quiet and to dispense equal justice to rich and poor.

Many of the Castilian grandees who were appointed to these high offices undoubtedly strove to live up to these precepts. In practice, however, their success depended largely on the strength of the local opposition they met: there was, for example, a great deal of local opposition in Sicily, which had gained the reputation of being “fatal to its viceroys,” but very much less in Naples, about which at least one viceroy remarked that no one should wish to be viceroy there, because of the pain he would have to suffer when he had to leave that post at the end of his term. A great part of the viceroys’ difficulties, however, stemmed from the unreliability of the king himself. Philip was always anxious to maintain the dignity of their office, but he encouraged the local ministers and officials to report on their viceroys behind their backs, and he had no compunction about recalling a viceroy, governor, or minister when it suited him in this way to appease local opposition.

The king kept control over his viceroys and governors by weekly, sometimes daily, correspondence, carried by the excellent postal service that the house of Austria had organized in Europe. All important political decisions were thus taken in Madrid, and there the king relied almost entirely on Spaniards for advice. Only one non-Spaniard, Cardinal Granvelle of Franche-Comté, was ever summoned to Madrid to play a leading role in the king’s inner councils (1579–86). It was Granvelle who had earlier, as the king’s chief minister in the Netherlands, reminded his master of the international character of his empire. He advised a more international dispensation of royal patronage, as, for instance, the appointment of the Prince of Orange ( William I the Silent) to the viceroyalty of Sicily so that Netherlanders and Italians would no longer think that the king regarded only the Spaniards as his “legitimate subjects.” But Philip had refused to listen, and the bitter Castilian hostility to Granvelle at court ended by making the cardinal’s ministry in Madrid less and less effective in the last two or three years before his death in 1586.


Early life and accession

Philip was a son of Amyntas III. In his boyhood he saw the Macedonian kingdom disintegrating while his elder brothers Alexander II and Perdiccas III, who each reigned for a few years, strove unsuccessfully against insubordination of their regional vassal princes, intervention of the strong Greek city Thebes, and invasion by the Illyrians of the northwest frontier.

Philip himself spent some time as a hostage at Thebes, the leading city (with Athens) of this decade (370–360 bce ), where the great Epaminondas, the most inventive tactician of all Greek generals until then, was in charge of the best army in Greece. These were probably the most formative years of Philip’s education. When he returned to Macedonia his brother Perdiccas soon found him ready for a command.

Philip came to the throne suddenly and unexpectedly in 359, when Perdiccas was killed meeting an Illyrian invasion. The Illyrians prepared to close in the Paeonians were raiding from the north, and two claimants to the throne were supported by foreign powers. In this crisis Philip showed a good sense of priorities by buying off his dangerous neighbours and, with a treaty, ceding Amphipolis to Athens. He used the time gained in military preparations. The army that later conquered Persia was developed all through his reign, but the decisive innovations in arms—the sarissa, a pike nearly one and a half times as long as the spear of the Greeks—tactics, and training belong probably to this first year.


Philip II DD-498 - History

I drive on a dirt road in Northern Greece through the ruins and spectral presence of a once-great city. Behind it, cloud shadows move across steep, forested mountains. Small birds dart from bushes. Wind combs the grass. Chunks of limestone, quarried more than 23 centuries ago, protrude from the earth. In the passenger seat, talking and gesticulating, is an archaeologist named Angeliki Kottaridi, a slight, forceful woman in her early 60s with bright coppery-dyed hair.

She is the director of operations here at Aigai, the ancient royal capital of Macedonia, now protected by Unesco as one of the most important archaeological sites in Europe. This is where Philip II of Macedon, having conquered nearly all of classical Greece, built his monumental palace in the fourth century B.C. For too long, Philip has been regarded as a minor figure in ancient history, remembered primarily as the father of Alexander the Great. But Philip was a colossus in his own right, a brilliant military leader and politician who transformed Macedonia and built its first empire. At Aigai, it is Philip who looms largest among the ruins, even though the place was vitally important for Alexander too. Excavations have revealed that Philip transformed the ancient city, revolutionized its political culture, and turned it into a symbol of power and ambition.

We pass the worn-down remains of the outdoor theater that Philip built near his palace. This is where he entertained dignitaries from across Greece and the Balkans, and where he ultimately met his death in a shocking public assassination. Kottaridi hopes to start excavating and restoring the theater soon, but this is an extremely busy year at Aigai. She and her team are preparing the exhibits for a massive new museum, scheduled to open to the public in January 2021. It will showcase artifacts found at the site—a selection of more than 6,000 items, spanning 13 centuries. Meanwhile, digging continues in the vast burial grounds and other parts of the city, and a staff of 75 is working to complete a $22 million partial restoration of Philip II’s palace—the largest building in classical Greece, three times the size of the Parthenon in Athens. For Kottaridi, decades of work are coming to fruition, and for anyone interested in Philip and Alexander, Aigai is now a must-see destination.

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This article is a selection from the June 2020 issue of Smithsonian magazine

Left, archaeologist Angeliki Kottaridi, with her rescue dog in the ruins of Philip’s vast complex, likes to underscore its magnificence: “The main peristyle of the palace is three times bigger than the Parthenon in Athens.” Right, much of Agai’s pomegranate tree-studded terrain awaits excavation. In this area are hundreds of grave mounds dating from the 11th to 2nd centuries B.C. (Myrto Papadopoulos)

And yet there is so much more to learn. “We have excavated only a tiny portion of the site, less than 1 percent, and this has taken decades,” says Kottaridi. “We are constantly making new discoveries, so many that it’s a problem, because we must also preserve what we have, restore the most important structures, write everything up and present our discoveries to the public. There is enough work for three or four lifetimes.”

Kottaridi grew up in the northern Greek city of Thessaloniki and studied at the Aristotle University there. Now she lives near Aigai in a house that she shares with a rescue dog and a retinue of 30 cats. Kottaridi doesn’t drive, won’t fly, refuses to use a smartphone, ignores most of her email and has planted more than 1,600 trees at Aigai, mainly for the birds. She has published six books and 150 academic papers, and in 2008 she was awarded the prestigious Golden Cross of the Order of the Phoenix by President Karolos Papoulias of Greece for her contributions to knowledge of the ancient world. “People ask why I have no children,” she says. “It’s really because I adopted Alexander the Great. I fell in love with him when I was young—not the mythical figure but the man. He was so much more than a military genius. He opened up the Silk Road. He built these amazing Hellenistic cities in Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, with freedom of religion, tolerance for different cultures, equal opportunity. And it all began right here in Aigai.”

This is where Alexander launched his famous invasion of the Persian Empire. Without denying Alexander’s greatness, it’s important to remember that he was using his father’s army, and that the expedition was Philip’s idea.

Kottaridi and her colleagues have found graves and ornamental burial goods dating back perhaps 3,000 years, but Aigai didn’t become a city until the seventh century B.C. That’s when the Temenids, a Macedonian royal dynasty that claimed direct descent from Zeus and Hercules, established their capital here.

According to legend, the first Temenid king, Perdiccas, was told by the oracle at Delphi that a herd of white goats would lead him to the site of his kingdom’s capital. Perdiccas followed the goats to the foothills of the Pierian Mountains, overlooking the Haliacmon River as it crosses the wide green Macedonian plain. “The word aigai means ‘goats’ in ancient Greek,” says Kottaridi, as we admire the same view.

The culture of the ancient Macedonian people, who originated as herding and hunting tribes north of Mount Olympus, became more Greek under Temenid rule. They spoke a dialect of the Greek language and worshiped Greek gods. “One of the important discoveries at Aigai was the tombstone carvings,” says Kottaridi. “They taught us that everyone here had Greek names. They thought of themselves as Macedonians and Greeks.”

View of the Haliacmon River near Aigai. (Myrto Papadopoulos) (Guilbert Gates)

In the eyes of sophisticated Athenians, however, they were northern barbarians who mangled the language, practiced polygamy, guzzled their wine without diluting it, and were more likely to brawl at the symposium than to discuss the finer points of art and philosophy. The Athenian politician Demosthenes once described Philip II as “a miserable Macedonian, from a land from which previously you could not even buy a decent slave.”

When Philip was growing up at the Macedonian court—based at the administrative capital of Pella, with Aigai reserved for royal weddings, funerals and other ceremonial occasions—he learned to hunt, ride and fight in combat. He also studied Greek philosophy, drama and poetry, and absorbed the necessity for ruthlessness in politics. The palace was a viper’s nest of treachery and ambition, and royal children were frequently murdered by rivals to the throne. Macedonia was a violent, unstable, hypermasculine society surrounded by enemies.

In 359 B.C., Philip, 23, saw his older brother King Perdiccas III and 4,000 men get slaughtered by the Illyrians, a rebellious warlike people in Upper Macedonia. His other brother had been murdered in a palace conspiracy, and since Perdiccas III’s heir was a small child, the Macedonian Assembly appointed Philip as regent to the throne, and then as king. “He inherited a very old-fashioned tribal kingdom, with an economy based on livestock,” says Kottaridi. “Philip had lived in Thebes for a few years, and he brought new ideas from Greece. He introduced coinage. He turned this city into a politically functioning space, and he completely revolutionized the military.”

Philip, who was legendary for his courage in battle, wears a lionskin headdress in an illustration from the 1800s. Ancient Macedonians prized the big-cat hunt and regarded a lion pelt as a symbol of fearlessness. (UIG / University Historical Archive / AKG-Images)

Macedonia had no full-time professional soldiers, just conscripts and volunteers. Philip instituted regular pay, better training and weapons, a promotion pathway, and a system of cash bonuses and land grants in conquered territories. He invented a highly effective new weapon, the sarissa, a 14- to 18-foot pike with an iron spearhead, and he trained his infantry to fight in a new phalanx formation. Like a traditional Macedonian warrior-king, Philip always led from the front in battle, charging toward the enemy on horseback. In addition to minor wounds, he lost an eye to an arrow, shattered a collarbone, maimed a hand and suffered a near- fatal leg wound, which left him limping for the rest of his life. The Roman historian Plutarch tells us that “he did not cover over or hide his scars, but displayed them openly as symbolic representations, cut into his body, of virtue and courage.”

Philip inherited 10,000 part-time infantrymen and 600 cavalry, and built this up to 24,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry. None of the city-states in Greece had such large standing armies. Nor did they foresee that Philip would use his military, along with cunning diplomacy and seven strategic marriages, to bring nearly all of Greece, a large swath of the Balkans and part of what is now Turkey under ancient Macedonian rule. “This is an incredible achievement for someone they dismissed as a barbarian, and very important for Alexander,” says Kottaridi.

Nineteen miles from Aigai, just outside the village of Naoussa, lies a tranquil clearing with caves, springs and ancient carved limestone benches. This is Mieza, or Sanctuary of the Nymphs. When Plutarch came here in the second century A.D., locals told him that this was where Aristotle had tutored the young Alexander. Guidebooks and travel websites impart the same information to modern tourists, and road signs point the way to “Aristotle’s School.”

It is immeasurably intriguing that Alexander, the ancient world’s greatest conqueror, was taught by Aristotle, the great philosopher. How did the experience shape Alexander’s intellect, decision-making, interests and outlook? Would history have run a different course if the young prince had been tutored by someone more ordinary?

The so-called School of Aristotle, where Philip II sent Alexander to be tutored. (Myrto Papadopoulos)

It was Philip’s idea. Alexander, the son of his fourth wife, Olympias, was a bold, headstrong boy of unusual intelligence. When Alexander reached age 13, Philip summoned Aristotle to the Macedonian court. There was a connection between the two families: Aristotle’s father had been a friend and court physician to Philip’s father, Amyntas III. There was also bad blood: Philip had razed Aristotle’s hometown of Stagira six years previously and sold most of its inhabitants into slavery. Nonetheless, the two men came to an agreement. Aristotle would instruct Alexander, and in return Philip would rebuild Stagira and resettle its citizens there.

For the next three years, Aristotle, a curmudgeonly figure who had small eyes, wore many rings and spoke with a lisp, tutored Alexander in biology, ethics, literature, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, politics, rhetoric and zoology. Plutarch describes the two of them sitting on the stone benches and discussing philosophy, and strolling through nearby orchards and vineyards. Modern guidebooks and history books repeat this romantic description, much to Kottaridi’s annoyance.

“It is idiotic!” she says. “From 13 to 16, Alexander and his peers learned how to fight. They would have done this in a gymnasium, a combination of school and military academy, with different areas to sleep, eat, study and fight. There is no evidence of facilities like this at the Mieza sanctuary. There is no room for them!”

In fact, Kottaridi’s colleagues have partially excavated the remains of a gymnasium seven miles away, near an ancient theater, and they have dated it to the time of Philip II. To the displeasure of the villagers in Naoussa, for whom “Aristotle’s School” has constituted a tourist attraction since the second century, local archaeologists now believe that Aristotle taught Alexander and probably 150 other students at this gymnasium. Philip likely built it in order to supercharge his elite warrior class, in preparation for his planned invasion of the Persian Empire.

I visit the place with Ioannes Graekos, an affable archaeologist who used to work at Aigai and now oversees a museum in the nearby town of Veria. There isn’t much to see at the gymnasium site—a few old digs on a large area of overgrown land—because the excavation stalled for lack of funding. Nonetheless, Graekos is able to conjure up what once stood here: a massive two-story building with dining rooms, wrestling and fighting areas, and classrooms. “Alexander and Aristotle probably visited the Mieza sanctuary, because it was so close, and so pleasant, but the real schooling took place here,” he says.

Aristotle’s fascination with nature, and his belief in the scientific method, exerted a strong influence on Alexander, who took naturalists with him as he marched his army across Asia. Alexander apparently sent their reports back to Aristotle, accompanied by flora and fauna samples. He also included scientists, engineers and philosophers in his retinue, and opened up intellectual contacts between East and West. When their student-teacher relationship ended in 340 B.C., Aristotle gave his own, annotated copy of the Iliad to Alexander, who carried the book to Asia and famously placed it under his pillow, next to his dagger, while he slept.

On the facade of Philip’s tomb, a frieze depicting Macedonian nobles at the hunt includes a rare portrait of the young Alexander, painted during his lifetime, on horseback, clad in a purple chiton. (The Ephorate for Antiquities of Imathia / Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports)

In one important regard, Alexander and Aristotle disagreed. The philosopher thought that all non-Greek people were barbarians and potential slaves. When Alexander started hiring foreigners in his army and administration, the relationship cooled. “Alexander wanted to expand the world and prove what a mixture of people can do and be,” says Graekos. “He wanted citizenship to mean the same thing for his subjects in Afghanistan and Persia as in Macedonia. This was anathema to Aristotle, who advised Alexander to treat people from other nations as you treat plants and animals.”

Anthony Everitt, the British author of the recent biography Alexander the Great, agrees that Aristotle was a hard-core nationalist. Talking by phone, he jokingly compares the philosopher to a “Brexiteer.” But he disagrees with Graekos’ and Kottaridi’s portrayal of Alexander as a pan-ethnic idealist who wanted to bring races and creeds together. “Alexander was driven by the excitement of fighting, which he loved, and the Homeric idea that war brought glory,” he says. “Once he had defeated the Persian Empire, he needed a practical way of governing a vast territory with many different languages. His solution was to hire locals. Gradually this led to the blending of cultures.”

Angeliki Kottaridi was a 20-year-old archaeology student in 1977 when her professor, Manolis Andronikos, invited her on a dig at Aigai. He had been excavating the tumuli, or burial mounds, near the modern village of Vergina. An English historian, Nicholas Hammond, had suggested that the tumuli and ruined palace belonged to the lost city of Aigai, and Andronikos agreed with him.

After the breakup of the Macedonian kingdom by the Romans in the second century B.C., Aigai fell into decline and obscurity. Then, in the first century A.D., a massive landslide buried the city and consigned it to oblivion, although a large burial mound remained clearly visible at the edge of the plain. Andronikos called it the Great Tumulus, and that’s where he and Kottaridi were digging.

At Lefkadia, 20 miles from Aigai, the Tomb of Judgment pays tribute to Macedonian valor. The great painted facade incorporates images of a warrior conducted into the underworld by the god Hermes. (Myrto Papadopoulos)

“I was thrilled that he chose me to help, but it was a very ugly excavation,” she says. “Just earth, earth, earth. Nothing but earth for 40 days. Then the miracle.” Excavating 16 feet down with a small hoe, Andronikos uncovered two royal tombs and dated them to the fourth century B.C. Other royal tombs discovered nearby had been looted in antiquity. But these newly unearthed ones were sealed and intact. That night, with guards posted at the dig, the two researchers barely slept.

The following day, they pried open the marble door to the first tomb. They stepped into a large, vaulted, double chamber strewn with smashed pottery, silver vases, bronze vessels, armor and weapons, including a golden breastplate and a beautiful gilded arrow quiver. Painted on one wall was a breathtaking frieze depicting Philip II and a young Alexander, both on horseback, hunting lions and other animals.

Philip’s stunning iron-and-gold armature is the most complete and best-preserved panoply from ancient Greece. The body armor would have been carefully fitted to his frame. (Myrto Papadopoulos) Detail of the ceremonial gold-ivory war shield of King Philip II. (Myrto Papadopoulos)

Opening a marble sarcophagus with trembling hands, Andronikos found a small golden coffin, or larnax, with a relief star on the lid. Lifting it, he saw burned bones and a golden wreath. A shiver ran down his spine. He was unable to breathe. If the dating was correct, he was almost certainly holding the bones of Philip II. “It was far too terrifying an idea for my brain to assimilate,” he later wrote.

The discovery, widely reported in the news media, was hailed as the archaeological find of the century. (Some archaeologists have disputed that Philip II’s bones were in the golden larnax, but the latest research, and the weight of professional opinion, now indicates that Andronikos was correct.) The following year, with Kottaridi as his assistant, Andronikos unsealed the unlooted tomb of Alexander IV, the son of Alexander the Great. “I was the first to catalog the items coming out of these tombs, to describe, measure and draw them,” Kottaridi says. “An unbelievable honor.” After finishing her dissertation in 1981, she worked as Andronikos’ assistant until he retired in 1989. Kottaridi took charge of Aigai in 1991 and has been overseeing it ever since.

Treasures in Philip’s tomb: a golden larnax that held his ashes and his wreath, partially melted in the pyre. (Myrto Papadopoulos) Fragments of a frieze, discovered inside Philip’s tomb, included ivory figurines. Second from left, an arresting likeness of Philip. Far right, Alexander. (Myrto Papadopoulos)

“When Manolis was here, we found the theater, the acropolis on the mountain, and four royal tombs,” she says. “Since I’ve been in charge, we have excavated more than a thousand tombs and found sanctuaries, new city districts, farmhouses, streets, fortifications. We have a much clearer idea of the history and the form of the city. It was spread out with different districts serving different functions.”

Kottaridi’s plan for Aigai is based on the same principle. She has been creating a “Polycentric Museum,” with separate and distinct units scattered over a wide area and integrated with the ongoing archaeology. The Museum of the Royal Tombs, completed in 1993, is a dark, atmospheric, underground space inside the Great Tumulus. Here one can see the tombs, frescoes and spectacular golden grave goods of Philip II, Alexander IV and other kings.

The site of the palace is nearly a mile away, on a broad terrace of land in the foothills. On a quiet Sunday afternoon, with Kottaridi in the passenger seat, I drive up there. Here Philip’s immense structure, under restoration by Kottaridi, is rising for the second time. The peristyle, or main courtyard, is 130,000 square feet—room for 8,000 people to gather. “This was a political building, not a home, and it was open to the public,” she says. “It was a place for feasts, political meetings, philosophical discussions, with banqueting rooms on the second floor and a library. The peristyle was flanked by stone colonnades, which we are restoring to a height of six meters. We are redoing all the mosaics on the floor. It is very difficult to find stonemasons and mosaic-makers who can do this work by hand.”


Expansion of Macedonian Power

In 357, Philip successfully faced off with Athens for control of the strategically located city of Amphipolis. Over the next two decades, Philip would achieve a series of victories in the region, only suffering a major defeat in 353. His able use of shifting alliances, combined with his military supremacy, granted him territory and influence that increased Macedonia&aposs wealth, security and unity.

At Chaeronea in 338, Philip&aposs army fought against a large assembly of Greek forces. Using a feigned retreat that created openings for his cavalry, Philip won a great victory over the Greeks. In consequence, he was able to form the League of Corinth in 337, which brought almost all of the Greek city-states into an alliance that was beholden to Philip.

After years of military campaigns, Philip was blind in one eye from being shot by an arrow and walked with a limp thanks to a devastating injury to his leg. In spite of these blows, he still dreamed of reaching Persia and its riches. He got the League of Corinth to sanction this invasion and began to prepare for the upcoming campaign.


Philip II of Macedon

Before the reign of Alexander the Great, his father, Phillip II of Macedonia, ruled the Macedonian state and became one of the ancient world&rsquos most accomplished generals.

Anthropology, Archaeology, Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations

Philip II of Macedon

This 1825 illustration of Philip II of Macedonia depicts him wearing a lion's skin headdress.

Photograph by Ken Welsh / Design Pics / Corbis via Getty Images

Philip II of Macedon was born in 382 B.C.E. in Aegae. He was the son of King Amyntas III. He was the 18th king of Macedonia and ruled from 359 to 336 B.C.E.

Macedon was unstable during Philip II&rsquos youth. During an invasion by the Greek city-state of Thebes, Philip himself was even taken hostage. He remained in Thebes for three years and learned military strategies from Epaminondas, the great Theban general. Upon returning to Macedon, Philip was able to help his brother, Perdiccas III, rule and succeeded him as king after Perdicass died.

King Philip II is credited with restoring internal peace to his country. Philip used his military knowledge to strengthen the Macedonian army. His soldiers were trained to fight as a phalanx. A phalanx was a large group of foot soldiers armed with shields and spears. Soldiers moved closely together in a rectangular formation as if they were one giant soldier. One phalanx could contain 265 soldiers.

King Philip&rsquos military battles and diplomatic tactics resulted in the expansion of his empire and domination over all of Greece. After he conquered Greece, he planned to conquer the Persian Empire, but he would never achieve this goal. Philip II was assassinated in 336 B.C.E., and was succeeded by his son, Alexander III, later known as Alexander the Great. While Philip II did not fulfill his plans to expand his empire through Persian territory, he is often credited with paving the way for his son to be one of the greatest military leaders in history.

This 1825 illustration of Philip II of Macedonia depicts him wearing a lion's skin headdress.


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28 Cards in this Set

. Woodward calls finance Philip's 'most serious domestic problem' in 1556

. In 1557, Philip was forced to suspend payments to creditors and replace with juros at 5% interest

. National debt stood at - In 1560: 25.5 million ducats In 1575: 40 million ducats In 1598: 85.5 million ducats

. 'The reign ended with an endless spiral of govenrment debt' - Kamen

. The 1557 state juro debt of 36 million had increased to 85 million by 1598

. By 1598, annual interest pauments were 4.6 million/year in contrast to the 0.35 million/year in 1516 - Thus, from 1516-98 interest payments increased by 1326% (250% under Charles and 528% increase under Philip)

. McKinnon-Bell argues that Philip cannot escape responsibility for this as he failed to develop a strategy for managing royal finance - Even Philip was painfully aware of his lack of financial understanding: "I do not wish to break my brains trying to comprehend something which I do not understand"

. The Council of Finance lacked cohesion and efficiency

. There were 3 departments within it - many members were bankers themselves/connected to bankers who encouraged Philip to take loans

. Espinosa was appointed in 1568 to try and make the Council of Finance work, but he couldn't bring change due to the entrenched interests

. In 1572, the very talented Juan de Ovando was appointed President of the Council of Finance, but Philip would not commit to his bold plans for solvency laid out in 1573 and declared bankruptcy instead in 1575 without consulting Ovando

. Woodward sees this as a clear case of Philip as an indecisive monarch who, instead of boldly supporting Ovando, sought multiple sources of advice and hesitated before making a decision

. It was difficult to get funds to the Low Countries, especially after the rise of English privateering

. From 1566-81, one aim of Spanish diplomacy was to secure the transfer of money across France e.g. In 1572, 500,000 ducats got to Alba this way

. After 1578, another route was created from Barcelona to Genoa and then via Milan - In 1584, 1586 and 1588, Farnese (Duke of Parma) got large sums this way

Sources of Finance - Ordinary income

. Income increased significantly from 3 million in 1559 to 10.5 million ducats in the 1590s - but the fundamental problem was that spending rose even faster

. 'at no time did Philip succeed in raising enough cash to cover his expenses' - Kamen

. Kamen says taxation tripled from 1559-77, but over the next 20 years stagnated at about the 1580 level while inflation rose - suggesting that the Castilian taxpayer could pay no more

. Up to 1580, the tax rise may have been possible to support because of increased agricultural output but thereafter the burden was heavy

. From 1556-77, Crown income rose by 180%, from 1577-98 by only 48% and rising inflation caused real crown income to stagnate at about the 1580 level

. An important source of income that continued under Philip

. Principally levied on the towns of Castile - any alteration of collection needed Cortes approval

. In 1556, it gave 940,000 ducats/year to over 3 million by 1574

. Philip tried to increase this further in 1577 to 3,715,000 ducats/year but the Cortes resistance over the excessive demands and heavy shortfalls led to Philip reducing it the total by 1 million ducats

. There was a clear increase of the alcabala from the 1550s, but it was obvious that the 'encabezamiento' ceiling had been reached

. Revenues tripled in Castile and quadrupled in Seville as Philip regained control of customs houses which meant the Crown got customs duties directly instead of via tax farmers

. But the growth slowed after the 1580s, as wars with England, France and the Netherlands disrupted trade

. Philip continued the policy and the church increased its contribution to the Crown

. There was the subsidio tax on church rents, lands and clerical incomes - Philip received 5 of these over his reign at 420,000 ducats at a time

. From 1567, a new church tax, the excusado, was granted by the papacy and made 270,000/year for Philip

. The cruzada yield doubled to about 200,000/year by the 1590s - exploiting Carranza's vacant see meant that the church amounted to 20% of Crown revenues by the 1590s

. The 'Three Graces' were the cruzada, subsidio and excusado - They were paid by the whole Church across Spain and their yield increased fourfold to over 1.4 million/year in the 1590s

. The 'Royal Third' - Tercias Reales (of all tithes) gave 800,000 ducats/year by the 1590s

. Some of the income of bishops were taxed (pensiones), making about 270,000 ducats/year

. Philip also grabbed the Aragonese Military Order of Montesa, which brough in 130,000/ear

. By the 1590s, the church provided about 20% of government income

. This shows the amount of political contorl that Philip had over the Church (no parallel even in Protestant countries) and the way that a theoretically tax-exempt body was in fact financing the state

. Thus, devout as he was, Philip did not spend his money on the advancemnt of the Faith within Spain

. The Inquisition was forced to be self-financing and perpetually short of cash - by the mid-1570s, the cruzada and subsidio supposedly used for defending African outposts were being diverted to cover juros repayments

. The Biship of Toledo, Don Sancho Busto, accused Philip in 1574 of setting a worse example than Lutheran princes in his meddling with fiannce

. Hunt argues that Church income was less valuable than under Ferdinand/Isabella and Charles, amounting to 1.6 million ducats out of 10 million ducats total

. The rest of Europe assumed that Spain was rich from silver but much of the money from the New World did not reach Spain

. The effective loss of the northern Netherlands and royal reluctance to antagonise the southern provinces meant that Spain was the only source of tax revenue - efforts to make the Netherlands self-funding had proved disastrous in the attempt to impose the 'Tenth Penny' in 1570

. The cost of wars could be met only by borrowing - Most of the money came from Genoese bankers (as Spain lacked a state bank) whose interest was paid ny direct forwarding of whole treasure fleets

. In exchange, Genoese bankers had a monopoly on the sale of playing cards in Spain and control of salt works in Adalusia

. The Fuggers (German bankers) took control of mercury mines in Almaden and silver mines at Guadalcanal in southern Spain and guaranteed the property of the military orders

. By 1600, juro interest payments equated to 40% of total income

. The number of asientos (contracts for loans) rose steeply - 21 in 1566 to 50 in 1567

. In the lead up to the Armada, a number of enormous asientos were concluded, some individually more than a million ducats

. The 1574 debt stood at 74 million ducats and the income for the year was only 5.6 million (according to Ovando) - Parker says that although this figure was exaggerated, the total was still 60 million

. The Castilian Cortes agreed to the millones in 1590 during the afttermath of the Armada defeat - in order to pay for wars against England/French/Dutch

. This tax was to be collected every 6 years in addition to the servicios every 3 years - As a result, all inhabitants in Castile were taxed on meat, wine, oil and vinegar

. 8 million ducats were collected in 6 years - The most nasoc mecessities of life were being taxed, creating an unjust burden on the poor

. By 1598, the Cortes demanded an end to the millones and a reduction in the alcabala - Millones was massively unpopular with all and alcabala receipts fell during the period

. The servicio was a subsidy of 800,000 ducats payable over 3 years - used in 1558, 1567, 1573 and 1576

. In 1586 and 1592, the Cortes was uncooperative and made collection difficult, but on the other 6 occasions they voted the servicio without a murmur

. The middle and lower classes in the towns bore the brunt of the servicio as nobles and clergy were exempt

. Thus there is debate about whether the Cortes was subservient or not

. The Crown was entitled to a fifth of income of all mineral mined in the New World ('quinto real', royal fifth) - This gave 65 million ducats in gold and silver during Philip's reign

. Although never more than 20% of income it provided was hard cash and it allowed foreign policy aimns to be pursued - e.g. At critical moments, such as in 1566 the receipt of 1.5 million ducats funded Alba's Netherlands campaign and silver from the Americas explains why banks kept loaning to Philip

. Also in some years there were unexpected windfalls - 4.4 million ducats in 1597 and 5.7 million in 1595

. In 1556, there was 10.5 million pesos bullion reaching Spain, 30 million in the 1570s and 70 million in the 1590s - Potosi (Bolivia), Zacatecas and Guanajuato (in Mexico) were pouring out silver

. In the first half of the 16th century, the New World provided 220,000 ducats/year for the Crown - this had quadrupled by the 1560s and increased twelvefold by the 1590s

. Mainly accounted from the 'Quinto real' and American taxes such as the alcabala, customs duties and the cruzada

. Large sums were taken from private traders - 400,000 ducats taken in 1566, 1583 amd 1587 - the owners in each case were compensated with juros, the total from this source amounting to 8 million ducats

. The Crown gained 372,000/year in 1556 to 3 million/year in the 1590s from the New World

. From 1503-1660, 185,000 kilos of gold and nearly 17 million kilos of sivler reached Seville

. McKinnon-Bell calls the silver a 'mixed blessing' as the money allowed monarchs to run up huge debts and added to inflation

. Silver did add to inflation - much of the silver never landed in Spain as it went to pay bankers and a lot went to foreing merchants who took it out of Spain

. Population rise lef to a lack of food, inflation and high taxation - thus bullion was not the only cause of inflation

. The New World may have damaged Spain more than help it - From 1530-1600, Spanish inhabitants could afford 20% less goods and most of the bullion went to foreign bankers and merchants

. There was a huge demand for textiles in the New World, but it was largely met by imports from the Low Countries and even England - so not helping Spain

. As young men left the land to emigrate or seek fortune in the trading cities of Cadiz and Seville, shortage of agricultural products worsened

. In the years of drought/plague, the towns could not be fed without importing Calabrian grain and so prices continued to rise

. Perhaps the New World wealth encouraged the extravagant foreing policies of Philip (and Charles)

. Ironically, there was a shortage of coin in Spain as foreign merchants, sailors and mercenaries all preferred to take their pay in silver ocin so it left Spain at a fast rate

. Philip also resorted to selling lands, titles and offices with the future impact of reduced revenue and an impact on the effectiveness of government

. The sale of common lands ('baldios') peaked in 1587 when they brought in 357,000 ducats - The total from baldios/church lands and towns was 4.8 million ducats by 1598

. The sales of towns peaked in 1582 when they produced 410,000 ducats - the sale of towns led to long term alienation of revenue as in many of the towns, the new owner then had the right to collect the alcabala

. The Duke of Alcala bought 1,500 vassals in Seville for 150,000 ducats in 1559

. The sale of offices was very popualr - It began in 1545 but peaked under Philip

. Most of the sales were in cities and towns where oligarchies looked to tighten their politicial control - In 1567 alone, the Crown got 270,000 ducats

. Hidalgo status was also sold, this peaked in 1567 yielding 75,000 ducats ut ferwer than 70 were bought in the whole reign so other, more attractive ways were found to gain noble status

. The alienation of sources of Crown authority and strengthening noble/town power, was a heavy price to pay for the short term boost of ready cash

. There was too much burden on the Castilian taxpayer

. There were two main sources of income Castile and the New World - Aragon was poorer, the Dutch were in revolt, and Italy was not prepared to contribute to campaigns in the Low Countries or the Atlantic

. The burden on the Castilian taxpayer increased by 430% at the same time when normal wages only rose by 80%

. The Low Countries had been a source of tax for Charles, but with the rebllion this turned into no tax and major amounts of money spent to put the revolt down

. In the first decade of his reign, Philip gained roughly 4.4 million ducats from 1570-71 to under 900,000 from 1572-73, while the costs of combatting the Dutch Revolt in the same period was 3.5 million

. After 1572, the Low Countries ceased to be a financial asset and turned into a major financial burden

. Other parts of the Empire were unwilling to contribute to the defence of the Empire when their own interests were not invovled - In the fuero provinces of Aragon, there were too many obstacles to raising money and there were only 5 servicios in the whole reign

.'His expenditure seldom bore any logical relationship to his resources, and shortage of money was a perennial problem' - Hunt

. Spending rose faster than income

. There were 4 bankruptcies - In 1557, 1560, 157 5 and 1598

. These debts tended to be long term and extended due to more juros and short-term high interest asientos that had to be paid on a specific date - Thus, the problem never went away

. The King could never win these trials with Genoese bankers and his short-term gains carried long-term financial penalties that eluded the Prudent King as finance was his 'blind spot' (Woodward)

. The 1557 bankruptcy was a legacy of Charles' war spending and this nearly crippled the Fuggers, so the Genoese lenders stepped in

. Each bankruptcy was a short-term policy desinged to free himself from Genoese bankers, but he never managed it and his future borrowing was often at a higher rate of interest

. After the 157 5 bankruptcy, the Army of Flanders went unpaid for a year, resulting in a series of ruinous mitinies and the sack of Antwerp that created more support for the Durch rebels, thereby furthering the Dutch Revolt and Spanish difficulties

. Court expenditure was low - Philip did not have expensive personal tastes and his court spending was minimal, the spending rarely exceeded 450,000 ducats/year

. Artistic patronage and interest in architecture were his main personal costs - e.g. his new Escorial palace cost 5.5 million ducats but this was spread over 20 years

. Spent 14 million ducats on palaces and garden, filling htem with expensive artefacts costing 7 million in total

. Administrative costs were small - Major office holder were grandees and they were expected to be self-financing

. The Duke of Alva claimed he had spent over 500,000 ducats in the king's service 66 corregidores and the 500 senior letrados were on low salaries

. In terms of warfare, in many ways Philip was no different to Charles - The Netherlands especially became the equivalent for Philip what the N.German Protestant states had been for Charles

. War was the only area where Philip could have made significant savings but he was not prepared to do that - He believed he was appointed by God and his responsibilities to God meant finances were not an issue for him

. Spain's resources were insufficient to meet the demands of the empire

. The Castilian economy could not cope with constant warfare

. Short-term expedients were employed to maintain next season's campaigns which mortgaged the future to pay for the present

. Windfall from the New World was squandered on war and not invested in the Spanish economy - thus, the economy could never support the ambitions of a great power

. Revenue was raised from a 'broader and deeper ra n ge of sources'

. Spain did become a stronger and greater power under Philip II, despite whatever financial problems existed!!

. By 1587, Spain was maintaining 100,000 soldiers throughout the Empire . In 1566, spending on war in Spain, the Mediterranean and Netherlands was under 2 million ducats - 4 million in the 1570s, 10 million ducats by the end of the reign . Under Philip 9,000 men a year were recruited on average from Spain - In crisis years, such as 1580, the total could rise to 20,000 . Between 1567 and 1574, nearly 43,000 men left Spain to fight in Italy and the Low Countries at the very time of the Morisco Revolt (1568-70 )

. In 1580, an army of 67,000 was in Flanders and another one of 37,000 marched on Portugal

. In 1571 alone, 18.5 million ducats were paid by Castile for Dutch and Mediterranean campaigns

. The Armada campaign against England in 1588 cost 10 million ducats alone - an enormously costly failure

. By 1598, Woodward argues an estimated that 10 million ducats/year were needed to maintain Spain's armed forces - a fivefold increase from the 1560s

Crown spending - War with France

. War with France at the start of the reign to 1559 and the next 5 years - the most peaceful and least costly of the reign

. In the 1580s, Spain were drawn into France's internal conflicts subsidising the Catholic League

. From 1582, Philip started to fund the Catholic cause in France on a modest scale but from 1585, he spent over 8 million in a decade

. From 1590-98, 30 million ducats were used to fund Spanish army campaigns in France

Crown spending - Dutch Revolt

. The Dutch Revolt cause Philip's largest spending and 'brought the Spanish treasury to its knees' (Kamen)

. Forces grew from a garrison force in 1560 to 67,000 in 1572 - costing an estimated 80 million ducats over 40 years as spending increased as England and France became increasingly involved in the conflict

. War in the 1570s cost 700,000 ducats/month

. By December 1572, Alba owed his troops 20 months wages - The 1567-86 government sent an average of 1.5 million ducats/year to Flanders (30 million in total)

Crown spending - Conflict with England

. The 1588 Armada was the single most expensive campaign at 10 million ducats

. After 1588, there were 2 further Armadas in 1596 and 1597 - the one in 1597 had 98 ships and 17,000 men

. As most troops were deployed abroad, Iberia was never secure - Sir Francis Drake raided Vigo in 1585 and 1589

. Cadiz was attacked in 1587 and 1596 - losses estimated at 20 million ducats in 1596 and a witness of the devastation lamented that 'no poweder, no swords. no weapons of any sort' were available for defence

Crown spending - Naval war vs Ottomans

. In the 1560s and 1570s, such as the siege of Malta in 1565, Lepanto in 1571 and the domestic Morisco Rebellion from 1568-70

. Lepanto in 1571 cost 1.1 million ducats - Italy contributed 400,000 ducats and Spain supplied a third of galleys and 40% of the men

. There were significant costs in protecting Spain's coastlien against piracy, especially in the 1560s and 1570s with North African raiders on the Mediterranean coast, but then English raids on the Atlantic coast from the 1580s

. Djerba disaster in 1560 led to massive naval spending - From 1560 to 1574, 300 galleys were built at a cost of 3.5 million ducats and thus Philip had a naval power 4 times greater than Charles

. By 1587, Philip was maintaining 106 ships in the Atlantic - Kamen sees that this revolutionary move meant Philip could fully commit to the Atlantic and that this was a decisive shift away from the Mediterranean

. One reason for the rise in costs was an increase in the cost of war as technology improved - There were radical changes in fortifications from the 1520s implemented by Charles and Philip to defend Dutch towns from French attack

. Star-shaped fortifications with overlappign fields of fire made fortresses hard to take and so sieges lasted logner - Antwerp held out for a year against Spain from 1584-85

. The Armada, 17 years after Lepanto, cost 10 million ducats (70% met by Castile) - The Armada fleet was no larger than Lepanto but had 8/9 times the firepower, which increased the cost of powder and shot as a result


Fans Are Begging Lana Del Rey To Stop Posting Photos Of Queen Elizabeth II And The Late Prince Philip

They are disgusted for many reasons, including that Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II are related by blood.

The world was stricken by surprise when the British royal family announced that Prince Philip passed away at 99 years old. Yet, there was a vocal crowd that joked about the late prince's death, saying truly despicable words and sharing memes that were just too soon. Frustrations regarding the royal family aside, Prince Philip was someone's husband, father, grandfather, and many other words relating to family or friends.

Lana Del Rey is one of those celebrities who is devastated, and showed on Instagram that she adored their love story. Her fans' reaction? They are disgusted for many reasons, including that Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II are related due to being great-great grandchildren of Queen Victoria.

This has happened twice for Lana, as she has two posts relating to Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II. Fans are right to be disgusted as the couple are related by blood, but in British history, it was actually common to have the royal family marry relatives to preserve the bloodline. It is gross and shouldn't be practiced today, but that's how history went in the previous centuries.

Regarding the hate for Prince Philip, he definitely didn't have the nicest comments during his time alive. To put it simply, he was from a different time where obscene jokes are absolutely not okay today. One fan even claimed that Prince Philip was a neo-Nazi and racist, while another straight up told Lana that he's in hell.

In this case, most of the fans who expressed their distaste for the late prince have gotten around one to ten thousand likes on their posts, and plenty of replies agreeing with them or arguing. Those that defended or sympathize with Lana either got less likes in their comments or have an army of other fans attacking them.

Even with the hate for the late prince and their relief for being dead, there are fans who are just as sad as Lana. Queen Elizabeth II is loved by many despite her husband and this is an incredibly difficult time for her. Prince Philip was very flawed in his later years, but there will be loved ones, friends, and supporters who are missing him so much right now.


My Take On It: History full of images of Prince Philip, the giant behind Queen Elizabeth II

Duke of Edinburgh’s Prince Philip dead

25Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her 26 to make her holy, cleansing her by the washing with water through the word, 2 and to present her to himself as a radiant church, without stain or wrinkle or any other blemishes, but holy and blameless. 28 In this same way, husbands ought to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 2 After all, no one ever hated their own body, but they feed and care for their body, just as Christ does the church— 30 for we are members of his body. 31 “For this reason, a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh.” – Ephesians 5:25-31

British Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, passed away at Windsor Castle on Friday, April 9, 2021. He was 99 years old. Later in the day, Earl Simmons, aka DMX was also reported to have died. As tributes started to flow in on social media, flowed along with massive memory recall of pictures of the gentle giant that was behind a smiling, longest-serving monarch, that has become the symbol of the British monarchy and the Commonwealth. Where the Queen was, the Duke of Edinburgh was standing tall, smiling, and very much supportive of the world’s most powerful woman.

While many mourned the passing of the two vastly different icons from the two Atlantic shores, there are many others that have piled on a diversity of negatives, conspiracies, and some downright nasty and inappropriate irreverent commentaries. For the late Prince Philip one commentary said he was part of the oppressors of the African continent who treated Africans like animals and sacrificed them. No mention of the carnage of the slave trade was noted.

On top of being reminded that DMX died of “a possible drug overdose,” the public was informed that the rap icon has 15 children. Also on memory recall was a rant and litany of the popular icon’s spate with prison sentences.

History is full of heartwarming images of Prince Philip, the tall gentle, smiling giant, who literary stood behind Queen Elizabeth II, the iconic leader, every time she came out and photographed. I have three images that are etched in my mind, they bring joy and an endless smile to my countenance as I recall Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of the longest-serving monarch, father of four grown children, three of whom divorced with their first spouses. At the time of his death, Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth had been married for 73 years.

My father was the High Commissioner in London when the Duke of Edinburgh traveled to Blantyre, Malawi when he represented Queen Elizabeth in handing over the reins of power to the new Prime Minister, Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda. This was on July 6, 1964. The pictures of the Duke chatting with Kamuzu in a pomp and circumstance ceremony, ushered into the annals of our joint history, the cordial future relations Malawi as a nation was to enjoy with the former colonial power.

Malawi later joined the Commonwealth where the Queen sits as the head of the 47-member organization. Prince Philip was always with the Queen at all Commonwealth events.

As Malawians, formerly known as Nyasalanders, settled down to nation-building, Malawi’s envoy, High Commissioner N.W. Mbekeani, along with his wife, Madame Lois Mbekeani were often invited to Buckingham Palace. One day at a banquet in the four years he served as Malawi’s representative, HC Mbekeani sat next to the Queen at the banquet in Windsor Castle. Sitting next to the monarch, High Commissioner and the Queen discussed matters of mutual interest and concern of the two countries. Prince Philip and Madame Mbekeani on the other hand talked about how the Duke loves to and shells the peas he and his wife eat at Buckingham Palace, and the mutual joys of raising children.

The thought of the Prince shelling peas has always baffled me. But it caused me to study him. I have always watched him, ever behind the Queen, ever tall, ever-smiling all this during the turbulent decades when women around the world fought and championed breaking the glass ceiling, shouting for equal rights with men, gaining places at the work and conference tables. Queen Elizabeth has it all and Prince Philip completed the picture, with a smile, for good measure.

I celebrate Prince Philip, the tall giant behind the super tall giant icon of not just one country, but multi-country leadership that Queen Elizabeth epitomizes.

In 1979, Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip visited Malawi. A lot of things took place that year, among them, I obtained a graduate honors degree in history. But the Queen’s and Duke’s visit to Malawi stand out always because of the beautiful red Rolls Royce ride that Kamuzu used for the Royal visitors. And yet, in my memory what outshines even the Rolls were the Kamenya Brothers of Dedza district that came to entertain the Royals. The Kamenya Brothers sang, and without batting an eye or missing a beat, adlibbed a faux pas in their celebration of the royal visitors:

Kwini Kwini wabwela ndi nkazi wake Kwini! (The Queen has come with his wife! The Queen!)

Lololololoooo! Atumiza uthenga O’baba Tembo kuti Kwini ndinkaziyo Kwini! (Oooooh! We have received a message from Honorable Tembo, that the Queen is the woman, the Queen!)

Lololololoooooo! Kwini Kwini wabwela ndimamunake Kwini! (Ooooh! The Queen has come with her husband! The Queen!)

(Compliments of Kamenya Brothers ala Dedza specials.)

These are heartwarming moments in my mind’s historic eye. The more one looks at pictures of Queen Elizabeth at public functions in her 70-year reign, one sees Prince Philip standing loyally behind her. I have often wondered: do they argue? Does the Queen have to succumb to her husband’s will or submit to him? These two people have led an exemplary union, modeling what every couple desires for their nuptials.

Meanwhile, Buckingham Palace announced that the funeral for Prince Philip will take place on Saturday, April 17, 2021 there will be a ceremonial procession inside the Windsor Castle grounds, where Prince Charles will be among the few members of the Royals. This will be televised on BBC, Sky, and ITN. It is expected to start at 2:45 GMT.


The Battle of Chaeronea and the end of Philips reign

In 338 BC the Battle of Chaeronea was a turning point in history. Athenians, Thebans and a small number of allies with 10 000 infantry and 600 cavalry from Athens and 12 000 infantry and 800 cavalry from the Thebes, confronted Philip who had 30 000 infantry and 3 000 cavalry. The left wing of the Macedonian army, Philip left to his son Alexander who showed courage and military skills. The Athenians charged first at Philip, but they were crushed. The allies, who were in the middle of the Greek formation fled immediately after this and Alexander, managed to surround Thebes’ Secret Band, crushing them completely. Demosthenes was a part of this battle, and he fled together with the Athenians.

After the defeat, peace was established with the Corinth treaty. Everyone, except Sparta was part of this treaty. Thebes had to admit a Macedonian garrison and a pro-Macedonian government. Athens was forced into an alliance, but was not invaded. The reason for this can be found in Philip’s plans to invade Persia. He needed the Persians to be denied the use of the Aegean, and for this he needed the Athenian navy. Macedonia established full hegemony over Greece, and Philip as a hegemon. Some modern historians claim that the settlement with Greece is Philip’s culmination, but this cannot be true since he was not a Greek politician nor even a Greek, but king of Macedonia. On top of that, the only thing he needed from the Greeks for them not rise against him, if he was to achieve his plans of conquest in Persia.

After the Corinth treaty, Philip started the preparations for crossing in to Asia. While the preparations were still in motion, at the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra with Alexander of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by Pausanias, a Macedonian noble. He was killed on the spot. Suspicion fell on Olympias and Alexander, but Aristotle did not believe in it, as he stated in his Politics. The throne was succeeded by Alexander III of Macedon, who will latter reach the river Banks of the Indus river, mostly because of the successes and politics of his father.


Watch the video: Macedonia: A Civilization Uncovered 1990 BBC. (January 2022).